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Archive for Appeals to Character (Ethos)

Fake Expert

July 25, 2012 No Comments

Fake Expert: A fallacious appeal to authority in which the 'expert' is not an expert at all.

Appeal to Authority, Definitional Matters, Fake Expert

Expert in the wrong domain

July 24, 2012 No Comments

Expert in the wrong domain: a fallacious version of an appeal to authority - i.e. appealing to a doctor of philosophy for a medical opinion, e.g.

Appeal to Authority, Definitional Matters, Expert in the wrong domain

Undermining Biography

July 18, 2012 No Comments

Undermining Biography: sewing seeds of doubt due to questionable background. Also known as ‘swiftboating’.

Definitional Matters, Undermining public biography

Appeal To Celebrity

July 17, 2012 No Comments

Appeal to celebrity: Accepting a proposition as true or likely true just because a celebrity says it is. Can be seen as a variation of 'false or misleading authority,' or as a variation of an appeal to character.

Celebrity, Definitional Matters

Undermining Shared Values

July 17, 2012 No Comments

Undermining Shared Values: undermining trust by pointing out that the opponent has values different than the audiences

Definitional Matters, Undermining Shared Values

Attack On Character

July 16, 2012 No Comments

Attack on character: undermining trust via character

Attack on Character, Definitional Matters

Shared Values

July 11, 2012 No Comments

Shared values: we trust those who champion those things we champion: mom and apple pie, e.g.

Definitional Matters, Shared Values

Establishing Biography

July 10, 2012 No Comments

Establishing biography: we trust those we know. Therefore, to gain trust, one must establish their background.

Definitional Matters, Establishing Biography
Michael J Fox For Claire McCaskill

Appeal To Authority

July 8, 2012 No Comments

Appeal to authority- Justifying a claim on the basis of someone else’s opinion, rather than giving reasons.

Appeal to Authority, Definitional Matters
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Fake Expert

Fake Expert: A fallacious appeal to authority in which the 'expert' is not an expert at all.

Expert in the wrong domain

Expert in the wrong domain: a fallacious version of an appeal to authority - i.e. appealing to a doctor...

Slippery Slope

Slippery slope: If we take one step, we’ll have to take all the rest of them because there’s no...

Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc

Post hoc ergo propter hoc: “After this, therefore because of this”, a fallacy in reasoning about causes. (I took...

Poisoning The Well

Poisoning the well: Telling the audience what to think of a speaker when you’re introducing the speaker (My next...

Loaded Question

Loaded question: A question with an unacceptable pre-supposition. (Why do you hate America so much? – Stephen Colbert)

Fallacies of Relevance

Fallacies of Relevance: Bringing up irrelevant considerations in an effort to distract listener from the merits of the actual...

Guilt By Association

Guilt by Association: You are just the same as X, and X is terrible. Therefore, you’re terrible (the conclusion...

Genetic Fallacy

Genetic fallacy: Saying that some idea’s history or origin (genesis) means it is true/false.

Equivocation

Equivocation: when an argument relies on an ambiguous word (a word with more than one possible meaning), shifting in...

Enthymeme

Enthymeme: general term for an argument with a gap (missing premise)

Confusing Correlation With Causation

Confusing Correlation With Causation: (Buying gas is correlated with owning a car. Clearly, buying gas causes car ownership.)

Confirmation Bias

Confirmation bias: seeing what you believe; interpreting observations/data to match a conclusion you already have in mind.

Undermining Biography

Undermining Biography: sewing seeds of doubt due to questionable background. Also known as ‘swiftboating’.