Translation Invariance and Miller's Weather Example
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190513
Abstract:
In his 1974 paper Popper's qualitative theory of verisimilitude' published in the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science David Miller gave his so called ˜Weather Example' to argue that the Hamming distance between constituents is flawed as a measure of proximity to truth since the former is not, unlike the latter, translation invariant. In this present paper we generalise David Miller's Weather Example in both the unary and polyadic cases, characterising precisely which permutations of constituents/atoms can be effected by translations. In turn this suggests a metaprinciple of the rational assignment of subjective probabilities, that rational principles should be preserved under translations, which we formalise and give a particular characterisation of in the context of Unary Pure Inductive Logic. Word Count:
Natural Language Semantics and Computability
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190419
Abstract:
This paper is a reflexion on the computability of natural language semantics. It does not contain a new model or new results in the formal semantics of natural language: it is rather a computational analysis, in the context for typelogical grammars, of the logical models and algorithms currently used in natural language semantics, defined as a function from a grammatical sentence to a (nonempty) set of logical formulas'because a statement can be ambiguous, it can correspond to multiple formulas, one for each reading. We argue that as long as we do not explicitly compute the interpretation in terms of possible world models, one can compute the semantic representation(s) of a given statement, including aspects of lexical meaning. This is a very generic process, so the results are, at least in principle, widely applicable. We also discuss the algorithmic complexity of this process. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  semantics  3 
Excerpts:
...reflexion on the computability of natural language semantics it does not contain a new model ...
...model or new results in the formal semantics of natural language it is rather a ...
...and algorithms currently used in natural language semantics defined as a function from a grammatical ...

1  natural  3 
Excerpts:
...is a reflexion on the computability of natural language semantics it does not contain a ...
...new results in the formal semantics of natural language it is rather a computational analysis ...
...logical models and algorithms currently used in natural language semantics defined as a function from ...

2  language  3 
Excerpts:
...a reflexion on the computability of natural language semantics it does not contain a new ...
...results in the formal semantics of natural language it is rather a computational analysis in ...
...models and algorithms currently used in natural language semantics defined as a function from a ...

3  logical  2 
Excerpts:
...the context for typelogical grammars of the logical models and algorithms currently used in natural ...
...grammatical sentence to a nonempty set of logical formulasbecause a statement can be ambiguous it ...

4  models  2 
Excerpts:
...context for typelogical grammars of the logical models and algorithms currently used in natural language ...
...the interpretation in terms of possible world models one can compute the semantic representations of ...

5  compute  2 
Excerpts:
...as long as we do not explicitly compute the interpretation in terms of possible world ...
...terms of possible world models one can compute the semantic representations of a given statement ...

6  process  2 
Excerpts:
...lexical meaning this is a very generic process so the results are at least in ...
...also discuss the algorithmic complexity of this process ...

7  results  2 
Excerpts:
...not contain a new model or new results in the formal semantics of natural language ...
...is a very generic process so the results are at least in principle widely applicable ...

8  statement  2 
Excerpts:
...a nonempty set of logical formulasbecause a statement can be ambiguous it can correspond to ...
...compute the semantic representations of a given statement including aspects of lexical meaning this is ...

9  new  2 
Excerpts:
...language semantics it does not contain a new model or new results in the formal ...
...does not contain a new model or new results in the formal semantics of natural ...

Lewis' Triviality for Quasi Probabilities
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190412
Abstract:
According to Stalnaker's Thesis (S), the probability of a conditional is the conditional probability. Under some mild conditions, the thesis trivialises probabilities and conditionals, as initially shown by David Lewis. This article asks the following question: does (S) still lead to triviality, if the probability function in (S) is replaced by a probabilitylike function? The article considers plausibility functions, in the sense of Friedman and Halpern, which additionally mimic probabilistic additivity and conditionalisation. These quasi probabilities comprise Friedman“Halpern's conditional plausibility spaces, as well as other known representations of conditional doxastic states. The paper proves Lewis' triviality for quasi probabilities and discusses how this has implications for three other prominent strategies to avoid Lewis' triviality: (1) Adams' thesis, where the probability function on the left in (S) is replaced by a probabilitylike function, (2) abandoning conditionalisation, where probability conditionalisation on the right in (S) is replaced by another propositional update procedure and (3) the approximation thesis, where equality in (S) is replaced by approximation. The paper also shows that Lewis' triviality result is really about ˜additiveness' and ˜conditionality'. Word Count:
$$\hbox {NL}_\lambda $$
NL
Î» as the Logic of Scope and Movement
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190327
Abstract:
Lambek elegantly characterized part of natural language. As is wellknown, his substructural logic L, and its nonassociative version NL, handle basic function/argument composition well, but not scope taking and syntactic displacement'at least, not in their full generality. In previous work, I propose
\(\text {NL}_\lambda \)
, which is NL supplemented with a single structural inference rule (abstraction'). ion closely resembles the traditional linguistic rule of quantifier raising, and characterizes both semantic scope taking and syntactic displacement. Due to the unconventional form of the abstraction inference, there has been some doubt that
\(\text {NL}_\lambda \)
should count at a legitimate substructural logic. This paper argues that
\(\text {NL}_\lambda \)
is perfectly wellbehaved. In particular, it enjoys cut elimination and an interpolation result. In addition, perhaps surprisingly, it is decidable. Finally, I prove that it is sound and complete with respect to the usual class of relational frames. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  nllambda  3 
Excerpts:
... text nllambda
...
... text nllambda
...
... text nllambda
...

1  text  3 
Excerpts:
... text nllambda
...
... text nllambda
...
... text nllambda
...

2  inference  2 
Excerpts:
...is nl supplemented with a single structural inference rule abstraction ion closely resembles the traditional ...
...to the unconventional form of the abstraction inference there has been some doubt that
...

3  rule  2 
Excerpts:
...nl supplemented with a single structural inference rule abstraction ion closely resembles the traditional linguistic ...
...abstraction ion closely resembles the traditional linguistic rule of quantifier raising and characterizes both semantic ...

4  taking  2 
Excerpts:
...basic functionargument composition well but not scope taking and syntactic displacementat least not in their ...
...quantifier raising and characterizes both semantic scope taking and syntactic displacement due to the unconventional ...

5  syntactic  2 
Excerpts:
...composition well but not scope taking and syntactic displacementat least not in their full generality ...
...and characterizes both semantic scope taking and syntactic displacement due to the unconventional form of ...

6  abstraction  2 
Excerpts:
...supplemented with a single structural inference rule abstraction ion closely resembles the traditional linguistic rule ...
...due to the unconventional form of the abstraction inference there has been some doubt that ...

7  scope  2 
Excerpts:
...handle basic functionargument composition well but not scope taking and syntactic displacementat least not in ...
...of quantifier raising and characterizes both semantic scope taking and syntactic displacement due to the ...

8  nl  2 
Excerpts:
...substructural logic l and its nonassociative version nl handle basic functionargument composition well but not ...
... which is nl supplemented with a single structural inference rule ...

9  logic  2 
Excerpts:
...natural language as is wellknown his substructural logic l and its nonassociative version nl handle ...
... should count at a legitimate substructural logic this paper argues that
...

An Application of Peircean Triadic Logic: Modelling Vagueness
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190320
Abstract:
Development of decisionsupport and intelligent agent systems necessitates mathematical descriptions of uncertainty and fuzziness in order to model vagueness. This paper seeks to present an outline of Peirce's triadic logic as a practical new way to model vagueness in the context of artificial intelligence (AI). Charles Sanders Peirce (1839“1914) was an American scientist“philosopher and a great logician whose triadic logic is a culmination of the study of semiotics and the mathematical study of antiCantorean model of continuity and infinitesimals. After presenting Peircean semiotics within AI perspective, a mathematical formulation of a Peircean triadic set is given in relationship with classical and fuzzy sets. Using basic logical operators, all possible respective implication operators, biequivalence operators, valid rules of inference, and associative, distributive and commutative logical properties are derived and verified through the truth function approach. In order to suggest practical directions, aggregation operators for Peirce's triadic logic have been formulated. A mathematical formulation of a medical diagnostic problem and ER diagram of a library management system using Peirce's triadic relation show potential for further applications of the proposed triadic set and triadic logic. Alongside, a classical AI game'The Wumpus World'is implemented to show practical efficacy in comparison with binary implementation. Besides giving some preliminary formulations for trichotomous set theory and definition of finite automaton, development of hybrid architectures for intelligent agents and evolutionary computations are discussed as potential practical avenues for Peirce's triadic logic. Word Count:
Choice revision
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190314
Abstract:
Choice revision is a sort of nonprioritized multiple revision, in which the agent partially accepts the new information represented by a set of sentences. We investigate the construction of choice revision based on a new approach to belief change called descriptor revision. We prove that each of two variants of choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized with a set of plausible postulates, assuming that the object language is finite. Furthermore, we introduce an alternative modelling for choice revision, which is based on a type of relation on sets of sentences, named multiple believability relation. We show without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically characterized with the same sets of postulates that we proposed for the choice revision based on descriptor revision, whenever the relations satisfy certain rationality conditions. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  revision  9 
Excerpts:
... choice revision is a sort of nonprioritized multiple revision ...
...revision is a sort of nonprioritized multiple revision in which the agent partially accepts the ...
...sentences we investigate the construction of choice revision based on a new approach to belief ...
...new approach to belief change called descriptor revision we prove that each of two variants ...
...that each of two variants of choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized ...
...we introduce an alternative modelling for choice revision which is based on a type of ...
...without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically characterized ...
...postulates that we proposed for the choice revision based on descriptor revision whenever the relations ...
...for the choice revision based on descriptor revision whenever the relations satisfy certain rationality conditions ...

1  choice  6 
Excerpts:
... choice revision is a sort of nonprioritized multiple ...
...of sentences we investigate the construction of choice revision based on a new approach to ...
...prove that each of two variants of choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically ...
...furthermore we introduce an alternative modelling for choice revision which is based on a type ...
...show without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically ...
...of postulates that we proposed for the choice revision based on descriptor revision whenever the ...

2  based  4 
Excerpts:
...we investigate the construction of choice revision based on a new approach to belief change ...
...each of two variants of choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized with ...
...alternative modelling for choice revision which is based on a type of relation on sets ...
...that we proposed for the choice revision based on descriptor revision whenever the relations satisfy ...

3  postulates  2 
Excerpts:
...axiomatically characterized with a set of plausible postulates assuming that the object language is finite ...
...axiomatically characterized with the same sets of postulates that we proposed for the choice revision ...

4  descriptor  2 
Excerpts:
...a new approach to belief change called descriptor revision we prove that each of two ...
...proposed for the choice revision based on descriptor revision whenever the relations satisfy certain rationality ...

5  assuming  2 
Excerpts:
...characterized with a set of plausible postulates assuming that the object language is finite furthermore ...
...named multiple believability relation we show without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed ...

6  axiomatically  2 
Excerpts:
...choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized with a set of plausible postulates ...
...choice revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically characterized with the same sets of postulates ...

7  language  2 
Excerpts:
...of plausible postulates assuming that the object language is finite furthermore we introduce an alternative ...
...relation we show without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed from such relations ...

8  relations  2 
Excerpts:
...language that choice revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically characterized with the same sets ...
...revision based on descriptor revision whenever the relations satisfy certain rationality conditions ...

9  sets  2 
Excerpts:
...based on a type of relation on sets of sentences named multiple believability relation we ...
...relations is axiomatically characterized with the same sets of postulates that we proposed for the ...

Representing Types as Neural Events
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190314
Abstract:
One of the claims of Type Theory with Records is that it can be used to model types learned by agents in order to classify objects and events in the world, including speech events. That is, the types can be represented by patterns of neural activation in the brain. This claim would be empty if it turns out that the types are in principle impossible to represent on a finite network of neurons. We will discuss how to represent types in terms of neural events on a network and present a preliminary computational implementation that maps types to events on a network. The kind of networks we will use are closely related to the transparent neural networks discussed by StrannegÃ¥rd. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  types  5 
Excerpts:
...that it can be used to model types learned by agents in order to classify ...
...world including speech events that is the types can be represented by patterns of neural ...
...empty if it turns out that the types are in principle impossible to represent on ...
...neurons we will discuss how to represent types in terms of neural events on a ...
...present a preliminary computational implementation that maps types to events on a network the kind ...

1  events  4 
Excerpts:
...agents in order to classify objects and events in the world including speech events that ...
...and events in the world including speech events that is the types can be represented ...
...to represent types in terms of neural events on a network and present a preliminary ...
...preliminary computational implementation that maps types to events on a network the kind of networks ...

2  network  3 
Excerpts:
...principle impossible to represent on a finite network of neurons we will discuss how to ...
...in terms of neural events on a network and present a preliminary computational implementation that ...
...that maps types to events on a network the kind of networks we will use ...

3  neural  3 
Excerpts:
...types can be represented by patterns of neural activation in the brain this claim would ...
...how to represent types in terms of neural events on a network and present a ...
...use are closely related to the transparent neural networks discussed by strannegÃ¥rd ...

4  represent  2 
Excerpts:
...the types are in principle impossible to represent on a finite network of neurons we ...
...of neurons we will discuss how to represent types in terms of neural events on ...

5  will  2 
Excerpts:
...on a finite network of neurons we will discuss how to represent types in terms ...
...a network the kind of networks we will use are closely related to the transparent ...

6  networks  2 
Excerpts:
...events on a network the kind of networks we will use are closely related to ...
...are closely related to the transparent neural networks discussed by strannegÃ¥rd ...

7  terms  1 
Excerpts:
...will discuss how to represent types in terms of neural events on a network and ...

8  present  1 
Excerpts:
...of neural events on a network and present a preliminary computational implementation that maps types ...

9  discuss  1 
Excerpts:
...a finite network of neurons we will discuss how to represent types in terms of ...

A Class of Conceptual Spaces Consisting of Boundaries of Infinite p Ary Trees
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190301
Abstract:
A new construction of a certain conceptual space is presented. Elements of this conceptual space correspond to (and serve as code for) concept elements of reality, which potentially comprise an infinite number of qualities. This construction of a conceptual space solves a problem stated by Dietz and his coauthors in 2013 in the context of Voronoi diagrams. The fractal construction of the conceptual space is that this problem simply does not pose itself. The concept of convexity is discussed in this new conceptual space. Moreover, the meaning of convexity is discussed in full generality, for example when space is deprived of it, its substitutes for concept domains are considered. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  space  6 
Excerpts:
...a new construction of a certain conceptual space is presented elements of this conceptual space ...
...space is presented elements of this conceptual space correspond to and serve as code for ...
...of qualities this construction of a conceptual space solves a problem stated by dietz and ...
...diagrams the fractal construction of the conceptual space is that this problem simply does not ...
...convexity is discussed in this new conceptual space moreover the meaning of convexity is discussed ...
...discussed in full generality for example when space is deprived of it its substitutes for ...

1  conceptual  5 
Excerpts:
... a new construction of a certain conceptual space is presented elements of this conceptual ...
...conceptual space is presented elements of this conceptual space correspond to and serve as code ...
...number of qualities this construction of a conceptual space solves a problem stated by dietz ...
...voronoi diagrams the fractal construction of the conceptual space is that this problem simply does ...
...of convexity is discussed in this new conceptual space moreover the meaning of convexity is ...

2  concept  3 
Excerpts:
...correspond to and serve as code for concept elements of reality which potentially comprise an ...
...problem simply does not pose itself the concept of convexity is discussed in this new ...
...is deprived of it its substitutes for concept domains are considered ...

3  construction  3 
Excerpts:
... a new construction of a certain conceptual space is presented ...
...comprise an infinite number of qualities this construction of a conceptual space solves a problem ...
...the context of voronoi diagrams the fractal construction of the conceptual space is that this ...

4  new  2 
Excerpts:
... a new construction of a certain conceptual space is ...
...concept of convexity is discussed in this new conceptual space moreover the meaning of convexity ...

5  problem  2 
Excerpts:
...construction of a conceptual space solves a problem stated by dietz and his coauthors in ...
...of the conceptual space is that this problem simply does not pose itself the concept ...

6  convexity  2 
Excerpts:
...does not pose itself the concept of convexity is discussed in this new conceptual space ...
...new conceptual space moreover the meaning of convexity is discussed in full generality for example ...

7  discussed  2 
Excerpts:
...pose itself the concept of convexity is discussed in this new conceptual space moreover the ...
...space moreover the meaning of convexity is discussed in full generality for example when space ...

8  elements  2 
Excerpts:
...of a certain conceptual space is presented elements of this conceptual space correspond to and ...
...to and serve as code for concept elements of reality which potentially comprise an infinite ...

9  simply  1 
Excerpts:
...the conceptual space is that this problem simply does not pose itself the concept of ...

The Expressivity of Autosegmental Grammars
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190301
Abstract:
This paper extends a notion of local grammars in formal language theory to autosegmental representations, in order to develop a sufficiently expressive yet computationally restrictive theory of wellformedness in natural language tone patterns. More specifically, it shows how to define a class ASL
\(^g\)
of stringsets using local grammars over autosegmental representations and a mapping g from strings to autosegmental structures. It then defines a particular class ASL
\(^{g_T}\)
using autosegmental representations specific to tone and compares its expressivity to established formal language grammars that have been successfully applied to other areas of phonology. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  autosegmental  4 
Excerpts:
...local grammars in formal language theory to autosegmental representations in order to develop a sufficiently ...
... of stringsets using local grammars over autosegmental representations and a mapping g from strings ...
...and a mapping g from strings to autosegmental structures it then defines a particular class ...
... using autosegmental representations specific to tone and compares its ...

1  language  3 
Excerpts:
...a notion of local grammars in formal language theory to autosegmental representations in order to ...
...computationally restrictive theory of wellformedness in natural language tone patterns more specifically it shows how ...
...and compares its expressivity to established formal language grammars that have been successfully applied to ...

2  grammars  3 
Excerpts:
...this paper extends a notion of local grammars in formal language theory to autosegmental representations ...
... of stringsets using local grammars over autosegmental representations and a mapping g ...
...compares its expressivity to established formal language grammars that have been successfully applied to other ...

3  representations  3 
Excerpts:
...grammars in formal language theory to autosegmental representations in order to develop a sufficiently expressive ...
...of stringsets using local grammars over autosegmental representations and a mapping g from strings to ...
... using autosegmental representations specific to tone and compares its expressivity ...

4  formal  2 
Excerpts:
...extends a notion of local grammars in formal language theory to autosegmental representations in order ...
...tone and compares its expressivity to established formal language grammars that have been successfully applied ...

5  asl  2 
Excerpts:

6  using  2 
Excerpts:
... of stringsets using local grammars over autosegmental representations and a ...
... using autosegmental representations specific to tone and compares ...

7  tone  2 
Excerpts:
...restrictive theory of wellformedness in natural language tone patterns more specifically it shows how to ...
... using autosegmental representations specific to tone and compares its expressivity to established formal ...

8  local  2 
Excerpts:
... this paper extends a notion of local grammars in formal language theory to autosegmental ...
... of stringsets using local grammars over autosegmental representations and a mapping ...

9  theory  2 
Excerpts:
...notion of local grammars in formal language theory to autosegmental representations in order to develop ...
...develop a sufficiently expressive yet computationally restrictive theory of wellformedness in natural language tone patterns ...

ConstructionBased Compositional Grammar
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190301
Abstract:
The paper presents a system for construction classification representing multiple levels of specification, such as grammatical functions, grammatically reflected actants, and lexical semantics, aligned with a compositional system of sign combination mediating between a construction perspective and a valence perspective. The system uses a feature structure formalism based on HeadDriven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) but with essential elements from Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG; cf. Bresnan in Lexical functional syntax. Blackwell, Oxford, 2001), and has as implementation background large scale HPSG grammars. While on the one extreme being able to encode word level selection in multiword patterns, the system on the other provides a compact format for construction specification, allowing for crosslanguage comparison both in construction and valence frame inventories. Pivotal in these capacities as well as in sign formalization in general are the grammatical functions. The paper motivates the usefulness of the various functionalities and illustrates the way in which they work together in a formally uniform system. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  system  5 
Excerpts:
... the paper presents a system for construction classification representing multiple levels of ...
...and lexical semantics aligned with a compositional system of sign combination mediating between a construction ...
...construction perspective and a valence perspective the system uses a feature structure formalism based on ...
...word level selection in multiword patterns the system on the other provides a compact format ...
...they work together in a formally uniform system ...

1  construction  4 
Excerpts:
... the paper presents a system for construction classification representing multiple levels of specification such ...
...system of sign combination mediating between a construction perspective and a valence perspective the system ...
...the other provides a compact format for construction specification allowing for crosslanguage comparison both in ...
...specification allowing for crosslanguage comparison both in construction and valence frame inventories pivotal in these ...

2  lexical  3 
Excerpts:
...as grammatical functions grammatically reflected actants and lexical semantics aligned with a compositional system of ...
...grammar hpsg but with essential elements from lexical functional grammar lfg cf bresnan in lexical ...
...lexical functional grammar lfg cf bresnan in lexical functional syntax blackwell oxford 2001 and has ...

3  structure  2 
Excerpts:
...valence perspective the system uses a feature structure formalism based on headdriven phrase structure grammar ...
...feature structure formalism based on headdriven phrase structure grammar hpsg but with essential elements from ...

4  functional  2 
Excerpts:
...hpsg but with essential elements from lexical functional grammar lfg cf bresnan in lexical functional ...
...functional grammar lfg cf bresnan in lexical functional syntax blackwell oxford 2001 and has as ...

5  valence  2 
Excerpts:
...mediating between a construction perspective and a valence perspective the system uses a feature structure ...
...for crosslanguage comparison both in construction and valence frame inventories pivotal in these capacities as ...

6  perspective  2 
Excerpts:
...of sign combination mediating between a construction perspective and a valence perspective the system uses ...
...between a construction perspective and a valence perspective the system uses a feature structure formalism ...

7  sign  2 
Excerpts:
...semantics aligned with a compositional system of sign combination mediating between a construction perspective and ...
...in these capacities as well as in sign formalization in general are the grammatical functions ...

8  functions  2 
Excerpts:
...multiple levels of specification such as grammatical functions grammatically reflected actants and lexical semantics aligned ...
...sign formalization in general are the grammatical functions the paper motivates the usefulness of the ...

9  grammatical  2 
Excerpts:
...representing multiple levels of specification such as grammatical functions grammatically reflected actants and lexical semantics ...
...in sign formalization in general are the grammatical functions the paper motivates the usefulness of ...

On Beall's New Interpretation of $$WK_{3}$$
W
K
3
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190301
Abstract:
I argue that a recent philosophical interpretation by Jc Beall of the middle value of Weak Kleene (threevalued) logic (known also as Bochvar's logic) as ˜being offtopic' is untenable. My main claim is that being offtopic' is a relation, not a property, and as such cannot serve as an interpretation of a truthvalue. Word Count:
Conditionals, Causality and Conditional Probability
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190301
Abstract:
The appropriateness, or acceptability, of a conditional does not just ˜go with' the corresponding conditional probability. A condition of dependence is required as well (cf. Douven in Synthese 164:19“44, 2008, The epistemology of indicative conditionals. Formal and empirical approaches. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2016; SkovgaardOlsen et al. in Cognition 150:26“36, 2016). In this paper a particular notion of dependence is proposed. It is shown that under both a forward causal and a backward evidential (or diagnostic) reading of the conditional, this appropriateness condition reduces to conditional probability under some natural circumstances. Because this is in particular the case for the socalled diagnostic reading of the conditional, this analysis might help to explain some of Douven and Verbrugge's (Cognition 117:302“318, 2010) empirical observations. Word Count:
Combining Machine Learning and Semantic Features in the Classification of Corporate Disclosures
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190228
Abstract:
We investigate an approach to improving statistical text classification by combining machine learners with an ontologybased identification of domainspecific topic categories. We apply this approach to ad hoc disclosures by public companies. This form of obligatory publicity concerns all information that might affect the stock price; relevant topic categories are governed by stringent regulations. Our goal is to classify disclosures according to their effect on stock prices (negative, neutral, positive). In the study reported here, we combine natural language parsing with a formal background ontology to recognize disclosures concerning particular topics from a prescribed list. The semantic analysis identifies some of these topics with reasonable accuracy. We then demonstrate that machine learners benefit from the additional ontologybased information when predicting the cumulative abnormal return attributed to the disclosure at hand. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  disclosures  3 
Excerpts:
...we apply this approach to ad hoc disclosures by public companies this form of obligatory ...
...stringent regulations our goal is to classify disclosures according to their effect on stock prices ...
...with a formal background ontology to recognize disclosures concerning particular topics from a prescribed list ...

1  ontologybased  2 
Excerpts:
...classification by combining machine learners with an ontologybased identification of domainspecific topic categories we apply ...
...that machine learners benefit from the additional ontologybased information when predicting the cumulative abnormal return ...

2  information  2 
Excerpts:
...this form of obligatory publicity concerns all information that might affect the stock price relevant ...
...machine learners benefit from the additional ontologybased information when predicting the cumulative abnormal return attributed ...

3  categories  2 
Excerpts:
...with an ontologybased identification of domainspecific topic categories we apply this approach to ad hoc ...
...might affect the stock price relevant topic categories are governed by stringent regulations our goal ...

4  learners  2 
Excerpts:
...improving statistical text classification by combining machine learners with an ontologybased identification of domainspecific topic ...
...reasonable accuracy we then demonstrate that machine learners benefit from the additional ontologybased information when ...

5  topic  2 
Excerpts:
...learners with an ontologybased identification of domainspecific topic categories we apply this approach to ad ...
...that might affect the stock price relevant topic categories are governed by stringent regulations our ...

6  machine  2 
Excerpts:
...to improving statistical text classification by combining machine learners with an ontologybased identification of domainspecific ...
...with reasonable accuracy we then demonstrate that machine learners benefit from the additional ontologybased information ...

7  topics  2 
Excerpts:
...background ontology to recognize disclosures concerning particular topics from a prescribed list the semantic analysis ...
...the semantic analysis identifies some of these topics with reasonable accuracy we then demonstrate that ...

8  approach  2 
Excerpts:
... we investigate an approach to improving statistical text classification by combining ...
...of domainspecific topic categories we apply this approach to ad hoc disclosures by public companies ...

9  stock  2 
Excerpts:
...concerns all information that might affect the stock price relevant topic categories are governed by ...
...classify disclosures according to their effect on stock prices negative neutral positive in the study ...

Boon or Burden? The Role of Compositional Meaning in Figurative Language Processing and Acquisition
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190209
Abstract:
We critically address current theories of figurative language, focusing on the role of literal or compositional meaning in the interpretation of nonliteral expressions, including idioms and metaphors. Specifically, we formulate and discuss the processing hypothesis that compositional meaning may either facilitate or impede the recovery or construction of the intended figurative meaning depending on multiple factors, and in particular, on the expression's decomposability and on the strength' of semantic relations between the compositional and figurative meanings. As a case study, we consider research on processing and acquisition of figurative expressions in highly verbal individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to neurotypical individuals, and examine the factors that may account for the observed comprehension deficits in the ASD group. Based on this evidence, we discuss some of the strategies employed by language users in processing noncompositional or nonliteral expressions, and we highlight implications for research on natural language comprehension and processing systems in the domain of figurative meaning. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  figurative  5 
Excerpts:
... we critically address current theories of figurative language focusing on the role of literal ...
...the recovery or construction of the intended figurative meaning depending on multiple factors and in ...
...of semantic relations between the compositional and figurative meanings as a case study we consider ...
...consider research on processing and acquisition of figurative expressions in highly verbal individuals with autism ...
...and processing systems in the domain of figurative meaning ...

1  expressions  4 
Excerpts:
...compositional meaning in the interpretation of nonliteral expressions including idioms and metaphors specifically we formulate ...
...multiple factors and in particular on the expressions decomposability and on the strength of semantic ...
...research on processing and acquisition of figurative expressions in highly verbal individuals with autism spectrum ...
...language users in processing noncompositional or nonliteral expressions and we highlight implications for research on ...

2  meaning  4 
Excerpts:
...on the role of literal or compositional meaning in the interpretation of nonliteral expressions including ...
...and discuss the processing hypothesis that compositional meaning may either facilitate or impede the recovery ...
...recovery or construction of the intended figurative meaning depending on multiple factors and in particular ...
...processing systems in the domain of figurative meaning ...

3  processing  4 
Excerpts:
...metaphors specifically we formulate and discuss the processing hypothesis that compositional meaning may either facilitate ...
...a case study we consider research on processing and acquisition of figurative expressions in highly ...
...the strategies employed by language users in processing noncompositional or nonliteral expressions and we highlight ...
...for research on natural language comprehension and processing systems in the domain of figurative meaning ...

4  compositional  3 
Excerpts:
...focusing on the role of literal or compositional meaning in the interpretation of nonliteral expressions ...
...formulate and discuss the processing hypothesis that compositional meaning may either facilitate or impede the ...
...the strength of semantic relations between the compositional and figurative meanings as a case study ...

5  language  3 
Excerpts:
...we critically address current theories of figurative language focusing on the role of literal or ...
...discuss some of the strategies employed by language users in processing noncompositional or nonliteral expressions ...
...we highlight implications for research on natural language comprehension and processing systems in the domain ...

6  individuals  2 
Excerpts:
...acquisition of figurative expressions in highly verbal individuals with autism spectrum disorder asd in comparison ...
...spectrum disorder asd in comparison to neurotypical individuals and examine the factors that may account ...

7  research  2 
Excerpts:
...meanings as a case study we consider research on processing and acquisition of figurative expressions ...
...nonliteral expressions and we highlight implications for research on natural language comprehension and processing systems ...

8  factors  2 
Excerpts:
...the intended figurative meaning depending on multiple factors and in particular on the expressions decomposability ...
...comparison to neurotypical individuals and examine the factors that may account for the observed comprehension ...

9  may  2 
Excerpts:
...discuss the processing hypothesis that compositional meaning may either facilitate or impede the recovery or ...
...neurotypical individuals and examine the factors that may account for the observed comprehension deficits in ...

Parsing/TheoremProving for Logical Grammar CatLog3
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190118
Abstract:
\({ CatLog3}\)
is a 7000 line Prolog parser/theoremprover for logical categorial grammar. In such logical categorial grammar syntax is universal and grammar is reduced to logic: an expression is grammatical if and only if an associated logical statement is a theorem of a fixed calculus. Since the syntactic component is invariant, being the logic of the calculus, logical categorial grammar is purely lexicalist and a particular language model is defined by just a lexical dictionary. The foundational logic of continuity was established by Lambek (Am Math Mon 65:154“170, 1958) (the Lambek calculus) while a corresponding extension including also logic of discontinuity was established by Morrill and ValentÃn (Linguist Anal 36(1“4):167“192, 2010) (the displacement calculus).
\({ CatLog3}\)
implements a logic including as primitive connectives the continuous (concatenation) and discontinuous (intercalation) connectives of the displacement calculus, additives, 1st order quantifiers, normal modalities, bracket modalities, and universal and existential subexponentials. In this paper we review the rules of inference for these primitive connectives and their linguistic applications, and we survey the principles of Andreoli's focusing, and of a generalisation of van Benthem's countinvariance, on the basis of which
\({ CatLog3}\)
is implemented. Word Count:
Inductive Reasoning in Social Choice Theory
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190112
Abstract:
The usual procedure in the theory of social choice consists in postulating some desirable properties which an aggregation procedure should verify and derive from them the features of a corresponding social choice function and the outcomes that arise at each possible profile of preferences. In this paper we invert this line of reasoning and try to infer, up from what we call social situations (each one consisting of a profile and the associated social ordering) the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation procedure. This inference process, which extracts intensional from extensional information can be seen as an exercise in qualitative statistics'. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  social  4 
Excerpts:
...the usual procedure in the theory of social choice consists in postulating some desirable properties ...
...from them the features of a corresponding social choice function and the outcomes that arise ...
...to infer up from what we call social situations each one consisting of a profile ...
...consisting of a profile and the associated social ordering the criteria verified in the implicit ...

1  procedure  3 
Excerpts:
... the usual procedure in the theory of social choice consists ...
...postulating some desirable properties which an aggregation procedure should verify and derive from them the ...
...the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation procedure this inference process which extracts intensional from ...

2  profile  2 
Excerpts:
...the outcomes that arise at each possible profile of preferences in this paper we invert ...
...social situations each one consisting of a profile and the associated social ordering the criteria ...

3  aggregation  2 
Excerpts:
...in postulating some desirable properties which an aggregation procedure should verify and derive from them ...
...ordering the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation procedure this inference process which extracts intensional ...

4  each  2 
Excerpts:
...function and the outcomes that arise at each possible profile of preferences in this paper ...
...up from what we call social situations each one consisting of a profile and the ...

5  choice  2 
Excerpts:
...usual procedure in the theory of social choice consists in postulating some desirable properties which ...
...them the features of a corresponding social choice function and the outcomes that arise at ...

6  verified  1 
Excerpts:
...and the associated social ordering the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation procedure this inference ...

7  associated  1 
Excerpts:
...one consisting of a profile and the associated social ordering the criteria verified in the ...

8  criteria  1 
Excerpts:
...profile and the associated social ordering the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation procedure this ...

9  ordering  1 
Excerpts:
...of a profile and the associated social ordering the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation ...

Inverse Linking, Possessive Weak Definites and Haddock Descriptions: A Unified Dependent Type Account
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190112
Abstract:
This paper proposes a unified dependent type analysis of three puzzling phenomena: inversely linked interpretations, weak definite readings in possessives and Haddocktype readings. We argue that the three problematic readings have the same underlying surface structure, and that the surface structure postulated can be interpreted properly and compositionally using dependent types. The dependent type account proposed is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to formally connect the three phenomena. A further advantage of our proposal over previous analyses is that it offers a principled solution to the puzzle of why both inversely linked interpretations and weak definite readings (in contrast to Haddocktype readings) are blocked with certain prepositions. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  readings  5 
Excerpts:
...puzzling phenomena inversely linked interpretations weak definite readings in possessives and haddocktype readings we argue ...
...weak definite readings in possessives and haddocktype readings we argue that the three problematic readings ...
...readings we argue that the three problematic readings have the same underlying surface structure and ...
...both inversely linked interpretations and weak definite readings in contrast to haddocktype readings are blocked ...
...weak definite readings in contrast to haddocktype readings are blocked with certain prepositions ...

1  three  3 
Excerpts:
...proposes a unified dependent type analysis of three puzzling phenomena inversely linked interpretations weak definite ...
...and haddocktype readings we argue that the three problematic readings have the same underlying surface ...
...of our knowledge to formally connect the three phenomena a further advantage of our proposal ...

2  dependent  3 
Excerpts:
... this paper proposes a unified dependent type analysis of three puzzling phenomena inversely ...
...can be interpreted properly and compositionally using dependent types the dependent type account proposed is ...
...properly and compositionally using dependent types the dependent type account proposed is the first to ...

3  weak  2 
Excerpts:
...of three puzzling phenomena inversely linked interpretations weak definite readings in possessives and haddocktype readings ...
...of why both inversely linked interpretations and weak definite readings in contrast to haddocktype readings ...

4  interpretations  2 
Excerpts:
...analysis of three puzzling phenomena inversely linked interpretations weak definite readings in possessives and haddocktype ...
...the puzzle of why both inversely linked interpretations and weak definite readings in contrast to ...

5  definite  2 
Excerpts:
...three puzzling phenomena inversely linked interpretations weak definite readings in possessives and haddocktype readings we ...
...why both inversely linked interpretations and weak definite readings in contrast to haddocktype readings are ...

6  linked  2 
Excerpts:
...type analysis of three puzzling phenomena inversely linked interpretations weak definite readings in possessives and ...
...to the puzzle of why both inversely linked interpretations and weak definite readings in contrast ...

7  surface  2 
Excerpts:
...three problematic readings have the same underlying surface structure and that the surface structure postulated ...
...same underlying surface structure and that the surface structure postulated can be interpreted properly and ...

8  structure  2 
Excerpts:
...problematic readings have the same underlying surface structure and that the surface structure postulated can ...
...underlying surface structure and that the surface structure postulated can be interpreted properly and compositionally ...

9  haddocktype  2 
Excerpts:
...interpretations weak definite readings in possessives and haddocktype readings we argue that the three problematic ...
...and weak definite readings in contrast to haddocktype readings are blocked with certain prepositions ...

Supercover Semantics for Deontic Action Logic
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190104
Abstract:
The semantics for a deontic action logic based on Boolean algebra is extended with an interpretation of action expressions in terms of sets of alternative actions, intended as a way to model choice. This results in a nonclassical interpretation of action expressions, while sentences not in the scope of deontic operators are kept classical. A deontic structure based on Simons' supercover semantics is used to interpret permission and obligation. It is argued that these constructions provide ways to handle various problems related to free choice permission. The main result is a sound and complete axiomatization of the semantics. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  action  3 
Excerpts:
... the semantics for a deontic action logic based on boolean algebra is extended ...
...algebra is extended with an interpretation of action expressions in terms of sets of alternative ...
...this results in a nonclassical interpretation of action expressions while sentences not in the scope ...

1  semantics  3 
Excerpts:
... the semantics for a deontic action logic based on ...
...a deontic structure based on simons supercover semantics is used to interpret permission and obligation ...
...a sound and complete axiomatization of the semantics ...

2  deontic  3 
Excerpts:
... the semantics for a deontic action logic based on boolean algebra is ...
...while sentences not in the scope of deontic operators are kept classical a deontic structure ...
...of deontic operators are kept classical a deontic structure based on simons supercover semantics is ...

3  expressions  2 
Excerpts:
...is extended with an interpretation of action expressions in terms of sets of alternative actions ...
...results in a nonclassical interpretation of action expressions while sentences not in the scope of ...

4  choice  2 
Excerpts:
...actions intended as a way to model choice this results in a nonclassical interpretation of ...
...to handle various problems related to free choice permission the main result is a sound ...

5  permission  2 
Excerpts:
...simons supercover semantics is used to interpret permission and obligation it is argued that these ...
...handle various problems related to free choice permission the main result is a sound and ...

6  interpretation  2 
Excerpts:
...on boolean algebra is extended with an interpretation of action expressions in terms of sets ...
...model choice this results in a nonclassical interpretation of action expressions while sentences not in ...

7  based  2 
Excerpts:
...the semantics for a deontic action logic based on boolean algebra is extended with an ...
...operators are kept classical a deontic structure based on simons supercover semantics is used to ...

8  constructions  1 
Excerpts:
...and obligation it is argued that these constructions provide ways to handle various problems related ...

9  provide  1 
Excerpts:
...obligation it is argued that these constructions provide ways to handle various problems related to ...

On Involutive Nonassociative Lambek Calculus
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190103
Abstract:
Involutive Nonassociative Lambek Calculus (InNL) is a nonassociative version of Noncommutative Multiplicative Linear Logic (MLL) (Abrusci in J Symb Log 56:1403“1451, 1991), but the multiplicative constants are not admitted. InNL adds two linear negations to Nonassociative Lambek Calculus (NL); it is a strongly conservative extension of NL (Buszkowski in Amblard, de Groote, Pogodalla, RetorÃ© (eds) Logical aspects of computational linguistics. LNCS, vol 10054. Springer, Berlin, pp 68“84, 2016). Here we also add unary modalities satisfying the residuation law and De Morgan laws. For the resulting logic InNLm, we define and study phase spaces (some frame models, typical for linear logics). We use them to prove the cut elimination theorem for a onesided sequent system for InNLm, introduced here. Phase spaces are also employed in studying auxiliary systems InNLm(k), assuming the kcyclic law for negation. The latter behave similarly as Classical Nonassociative Lambek Calculus, studied in de Groote and Lamarche (Stud Log 71(3):355“388, 2002) and Buszkowski (2016). We reduce the provability in InNLm to that in InNLm(k). This yields the equivalence of type grammars based on InNLm with (
\(\epsilon \)
free) contextfree grammars and the PTIME complexity of InNLm. Word Count:
FirstOrder Definability of Transition Structures
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20181214
Abstract:
The transition semantics presented in Rumberg (J Log Lang Inf 25(1):77“108, 2016a) constitutes a finegrained framework for modeling the interrelation of modality and time in branching time structures. In that framework, sentences of the transition language
\(\mathcal {L}_\mathsf{t}\)
are evaluated on transition structures at pairs consisting of a moment and a set of transitions. In this paper, we provide a class of firstorder definable Kripke structures that preserves
\(\mathcal {L}_\mathsf{t}\)
validity w.r.t. transition structures. As a consequence, for a certain fragment of
\(\mathcal {L}_\mathsf{t}\)
, validity w.r.t. transition structures turns out to be axiomatizable. The result is then extended to the entire language
\(\mathcal {L}_\mathsf{t}\)
by means of a quite natural ˜Henkin move', i.e. by relaxing the notion of validity to bundled structures. Word Count:
