Choice revision
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191201
Abstract:
Choice revision is a sort of nonprioritized multiple revision, in which the agent partially accepts the new information represented by a set of sentences. We investigate the construction of choice revision based on a new approach to belief change called descriptor revision. We prove that each of two variants of choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized with a set of plausible postulates, assuming that the object language is finite. Furthermore, we introduce an alternative modelling for choice revision, which is based on a type of relation on sets of sentences, named multiple believability relation. We show without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically characterized with the same sets of postulates that we proposed for the choice revision based on descriptor revision, whenever the relations satisfy certain rationality conditions. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  revision  9 
Excerpts:
... choice revision is a sort of nonprioritized multiple revision ...
...revision is a sort of nonprioritized multiple revision in which the agent partially accepts the ...
...sentences we investigate the construction of choice revision based on a new approach to belief ...
...new approach to belief change called descriptor revision we prove that each of two variants ...
...that each of two variants of choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized ...
...we introduce an alternative modelling for choice revision which is based on a type of ...
...without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically characterized ...
...postulates that we proposed for the choice revision based on descriptor revision whenever the relations ...
...for the choice revision based on descriptor revision whenever the relations satisfy certain rationality conditions ...

1  choice  6 
Excerpts:
... choice revision is a sort of nonprioritized multiple ...
...of sentences we investigate the construction of choice revision based on a new approach to ...
...prove that each of two variants of choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically ...
...furthermore we introduce an alternative modelling for choice revision which is based on a type ...
...show without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically ...
...of postulates that we proposed for the choice revision based on descriptor revision whenever the ...

2  based  4 
Excerpts:
...we investigate the construction of choice revision based on a new approach to belief change ...
...each of two variants of choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized with ...
...alternative modelling for choice revision which is based on a type of relation on sets ...
...that we proposed for the choice revision based on descriptor revision whenever the relations satisfy ...

3  postulates  2 
Excerpts:
...axiomatically characterized with a set of plausible postulates assuming that the object language is finite ...
...axiomatically characterized with the same sets of postulates that we proposed for the choice revision ...

4  descriptor  2 
Excerpts:
...a new approach to belief change called descriptor revision we prove that each of two ...
...proposed for the choice revision based on descriptor revision whenever the relations satisfy certain rationality ...

5  assuming  2 
Excerpts:
...characterized with a set of plausible postulates assuming that the object language is finite furthermore ...
...named multiple believability relation we show without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed ...

6  axiomatically  2 
Excerpts:
...choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized with a set of plausible postulates ...
...choice revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically characterized with the same sets of postulates ...

7  language  2 
Excerpts:
...of plausible postulates assuming that the object language is finite furthermore we introduce an alternative ...
...relation we show without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed from such relations ...

8  relations  2 
Excerpts:
...language that choice revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically characterized with the same sets ...
...revision based on descriptor revision whenever the relations satisfy certain rationality conditions ...

9  sets  2 
Excerpts:
...based on a type of relation on sets of sentences named multiple believability relation we ...
...relations is axiomatically characterized with the same sets of postulates that we proposed for the ...

Inductive Reasoning in Social Choice Theory
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191201
Abstract:
The usual procedure in the theory of social choice consists in postulating some desirable properties which an aggregation procedure should verify and derive from them the features of a corresponding social choice function and the outcomes that arise at each possible profile of preferences. In this paper we invert this line of reasoning and try to infer, up from what we call social situations (each one consisting of a profile and the associated social ordering) the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation procedure. This inference process, which extracts intensional from extensional information can be seen as an exercise in qualitative statistics'. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  social  4 
Excerpts:
...the usual procedure in the theory of social choice consists in postulating some desirable properties ...
...from them the features of a corresponding social choice function and the outcomes that arise ...
...to infer up from what we call social situations each one consisting of a profile ...
...consisting of a profile and the associated social ordering the criteria verified in the implicit ...

1  procedure  3 
Excerpts:
... the usual procedure in the theory of social choice consists ...
...postulating some desirable properties which an aggregation procedure should verify and derive from them the ...
...the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation procedure this inference process which extracts intensional from ...

2  profile  2 
Excerpts:
...the outcomes that arise at each possible profile of preferences in this paper we invert ...
...social situations each one consisting of a profile and the associated social ordering the criteria ...

3  aggregation  2 
Excerpts:
...in postulating some desirable properties which an aggregation procedure should verify and derive from them ...
...ordering the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation procedure this inference process which extracts intensional ...

4  each  2 
Excerpts:
...function and the outcomes that arise at each possible profile of preferences in this paper ...
...up from what we call social situations each one consisting of a profile and the ...

5  choice  2 
Excerpts:
...usual procedure in the theory of social choice consists in postulating some desirable properties which ...
...them the features of a corresponding social choice function and the outcomes that arise at ...

6  verified  1 
Excerpts:
...and the associated social ordering the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation procedure this inference ...

7  associated  1 
Excerpts:
...one consisting of a profile and the associated social ordering the criteria verified in the ...

8  criteria  1 
Excerpts:
...profile and the associated social ordering the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation procedure this ...

9  ordering  1 
Excerpts:
...of a profile and the associated social ordering the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation ...

Lewis' Triviality for Quasi Probabilities
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191201
Abstract:
According to Stalnaker's Thesis (S), the probability of a conditional is the conditional probability. Under some mild conditions, the thesis trivialises probabilities and conditionals, as initially shown by David Lewis. This article asks the following question: does (S) still lead to triviality, if the probability function in (S) is replaced by a probabilitylike function? The article considers plausibility functions, in the sense of Friedman and Halpern, which additionally mimic probabilistic additivity and conditionalisation. These quasi probabilities comprise Friedman“Halpern's conditional plausibility spaces, as well as other known representations of conditional doxastic states. The paper proves Lewis' triviality for quasi probabilities and discusses how this has implications for three other prominent strategies to avoid Lewis' triviality: (1) Adams' thesis, where the probability function on the left in (S) is replaced by a probabilitylike function, (2) abandoning conditionalisation, where probability conditionalisation on the right in (S) is replaced by another propositional update procedure and (3) the approximation thesis, where equality in (S) is replaced by approximation. The paper also shows that Lewis' triviality result is really about ˜additiveness' and ˜conditionality'. Word Count:
Translation Invariance and Miller's Weather Example
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191201
Abstract:
In his 1974 paper Popper's qualitative theory of verisimilitude' published in the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science David Miller gave his so called ˜Weather Example' to argue that the Hamming distance between constituents is flawed as a measure of proximity to truth since the former is not, unlike the latter, translation invariant. In this present paper we generalise David Miller's Weather Example in both the unary and polyadic cases, characterising precisely which permutations of constituents/atoms can be effected by translations. In turn this suggests a metaprinciple of the rational assignment of subjective probabilities, that rational principles should be preserved under translations, which we formalise and give a particular characterisation of in the context of Unary Pure Inductive Logic. Word Count:
A History Based Logic for Dynamic Preference Updates
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191112
Abstract:
History based models suggest a processbased approach to epistemic and temporal reasoning. In this work, we introduce preferences to history based models. Motivated by game theoretical observations, we discuss how preferences can dynamically be updated in history based models. Following, we consider arrow update logic and event calculus, and give history based models for these logics. This allows us to relate dynamic logics of history based models to a broader framework. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  history  5 
Excerpts:
... history based models suggest a processbased approach to ...
...in this work we introduce preferences to history based models motivated by game theoretical observations ...
...how preferences can dynamically be updated in history based models following we consider arrow update ...
...update logic and event calculus and give history based models for these logics this allows ...
...allows us to relate dynamic logics of history based models to a broader framework ...

1  models  5 
Excerpts:
... history based models suggest a processbased approach to epistemic and ...
...work we introduce preferences to history based models motivated by game theoretical observations we discuss ...
...can dynamically be updated in history based models following we consider arrow update logic and ...
...and event calculus and give history based models for these logics this allows us to ...
...to relate dynamic logics of history based models to a broader framework ...

2  based  5 
Excerpts:
... history based models suggest a processbased approach to epistemic ...
...this work we introduce preferences to history based models motivated by game theoretical observations we ...
...preferences can dynamically be updated in history based models following we consider arrow update logic ...
...logic and event calculus and give history based models for these logics this allows us ...
...us to relate dynamic logics of history based models to a broader framework ...

3  preferences  2 
Excerpts:
...temporal reasoning in this work we introduce preferences to history based models motivated by game ...
...by game theoretical observations we discuss how preferences can dynamically be updated in history based ...

4  logics  2 
Excerpts:
...and give history based models for these logics this allows us to relate dynamic logics ...
...logics this allows us to relate dynamic logics of history based models to a broader ...

5  update  1 
Excerpts:
...history based models following we consider arrow update logic and event calculus and give history ...

6  logic  1 
Excerpts:
...based models following we consider arrow update logic and event calculus and give history based ...

7  arrow  1 
Excerpts:
...in history based models following we consider arrow update logic and event calculus and give ...

8  framework  1 
Excerpts:
...of history based models to a broader framework ...

9  consider  1 
Excerpts:
...updated in history based models following we consider arrow update logic and event calculus and ...

The Class of All Natural Implicative Expansions of Kleene's Strong Logic Functionally Equivalent to Åkasiewicz's 3Valued Logic Å3
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191102
Abstract:
We consider the logics determined by the set of all natural implicative expansions of Kleene's strong 3valued matrix (with both only one and two designated values) and select the class of all logics functionally equivalent to Åukasiewicz's 3valued logic Å3. The concept of a natural implicative matrix' is based upon the notion of a natural conditional' defined in Tomova (Rep Math Log 47:173“182, 2012). Word Count:
A Note on the Issue of Cohesiveness in Canonical Models
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191026
Abstract:
In their presentation of canonical models for normal systems of modal logic, Hughes and Cresswell observe that some of these models are based on a frame which can be also thought of as a collection of two or more isolated frames; they call such frames ˜noncohesive'. The problem of checking whether the canonical model of a given system is cohesive is still rather unexplored and no general decision procedure is available. The main contribution of this article consists in introducing a method which is sufficient to show that canonical models of some relevant classes of normal monomodal and bimodal systems are always noncohesive.
Word Count:
The Thin Red Line, Molinism, and the Flow of Time
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191026
Abstract:
In addressing the problem of the (in)compatibility of divine foreknowledge and human freedom, philosophers of religion encounter problems regarding the metaphysics and structure of time. Some models of temporal logic developed for completely independent reasons have proved especially appropriate for representing the temporal structure of the world as Molinism conceives it. In particular, some models of the Thin Red Line (
\(\mathsf {TRL}\)
) seem to imply that conditionals of freedom are true or false, as Molinists maintain. Noting the resemblance between Molinism and
\(\mathsf {TRL}\)
models, Restall (Molinism and the thin red line. In: Perszyk K (ed) Molinism: the contemporary debate, pp 227“239, 2011) has advanced some criticisms of Molinism that have also been leveled against
\(\mathsf {TRL}\)
models. In particular, Restall believes that the implication
\(p \rightarrow \mathbf {HF}p\)
is not true in
\(\mathsf {TRL}\)
models. Because Molinists must also accept that this implication is not true, this is a problem for them. We will show that Restall's criticism is wide of the mark. Firstly, it will be demonstrated that in many open future models (not just
\(\mathsf {TRL}\)
) the implication
\(p \rightarrow \mathbf {HF}p\)
is invalid. Secondly, while it is possible to account for this implication, some modifications are required in respect of the branching time semantics. In proposing one such modification, we show that this new semantics can be adopted by advocates of the
\(\mathsf {TRL}\)
and, as a consequence, by Molinists as well. We conclude that the principle stated by Restall is either a problem for many open future models (not just for Molinists) or can be accounted for by these models and so is not a problem for Molinists either. Word Count:
Group Conformity in Social Networks
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190926
Abstract:
Diffusion in social networks is a result of agents' natural desires to conform to the behavioral patterns of their peers. In this article we show that the recently proposed propositional opinion diffusion model' could be used to model an agent's conformity to different social groups that the same agent might belong to, rather than conformity to the society as whole. The main technical contribution of this article is a sound and complete logical system describing the properties of the influence relation in this model. The logical system is an extension of Armstrong's axioms from database theory by one new axiom that captures the topological structure of the network. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  model  3 
Excerpts:
...that the recently proposed propositional opinion diffusion model could be used to model an agents ...
...opinion diffusion model could be used to model an agents conformity to different social groups ...
...properties of the influence relation in this model the logical system is an extension of ...

1  article  2 
Excerpts:
...behavioral patterns of their peers in this article we show that the recently proposed propositional ...
...whole the main technical contribution of this article is a sound and complete logical system ...

2  system  2 
Excerpts:
...article is a sound and complete logical system describing the properties of the influence relation ...
...influence relation in this model the logical system is an extension of armstrongs axioms from ...

3  logical  2 
Excerpts:
...this article is a sound and complete logical system describing the properties of the influence ...
...the influence relation in this model the logical system is an extension of armstrongs axioms ...

4  diffusion  2 
Excerpts:
... diffusion in social networks is a result of ...
...show that the recently proposed propositional opinion diffusion model could be used to model an ...

5  agents  2 
Excerpts:
...in social networks is a result of agents natural desires to conform to the behavioral ...
...model could be used to model an agents conformity to different social groups that the ...

6  social  2 
Excerpts:
... diffusion in social networks is a result of agents natural ...
...to model an agents conformity to different social groups that the same agent might belong ...

7  conformity  2 
Excerpts:
...could be used to model an agents conformity to different social groups that the same ...
...same agent might belong to rather than conformity to the society as whole the main ...

8  describing  1 
Excerpts:
...is a sound and complete logical system describing the properties of the influence relation in ...

9  properties  1 
Excerpts:
...sound and complete logical system describing the properties of the influence relation in this model ...

On Relation Between Linear Temporal Logic and Quantum Finite Automata
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190914
Abstract:
Linear temporal logic is a widely used method for verification of model checking and expressing the system specifications. The relationship between theory of automata and logic had a great influence in the computer science. Investigation of the relationship between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is a natural goal. In this paper, we present a construction of quantum finite automata on finite words from lineartime temporal logic formulas. Further, the relation between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is explored in terms of language recognition and acceptance probability. We have shown that the class of languages accepted by quantum finite automata are definable in linear temporal logic, except for measureonce oneway quantum finite automata. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  automata  6 
Excerpts:
...system specifications the relationship between theory of automata and logic had a great influence in ...
...investigation of the relationship between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is a natural ...
...we present a construction of quantum finite automata on finite words from lineartime temporal logic ...
...formulas further the relation between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is explored in ...
...class of languages accepted by quantum finite automata are definable in linear temporal logic except ...
...logic except for measureonce oneway quantum finite automata ...

1  logic  6 
Excerpts:
... linear temporal logic is a widely used method for verification ...
...the relationship between theory of automata and logic had a great influence in the computer ...
...between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is a natural goal in this paper ...
...automata on finite words from lineartime temporal logic formulas further the relation between quantum finite ...
...between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is explored in terms of language recognition ...
...finite automata are definable in linear temporal logic except for measureonce oneway quantum finite automata ...

2  finite  6 
Excerpts:
...science investigation of the relationship between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is a ...
...paper we present a construction of quantum finite automata on finite words from lineartime temporal ...
...a construction of quantum finite automata on finite words from lineartime temporal logic formulas further ...
...logic formulas further the relation between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is explored ...
...the class of languages accepted by quantum finite automata are definable in linear temporal logic ...
...temporal logic except for measureonce oneway quantum finite automata ...

3  quantum  5 
Excerpts:
...computer science investigation of the relationship between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is ...
...this paper we present a construction of quantum finite automata on finite words from lineartime ...
...temporal logic formulas further the relation between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is ...
...that the class of languages accepted by quantum finite automata are definable in linear temporal ...
...linear temporal logic except for measureonce oneway quantum finite automata ...

4  temporal  5 
Excerpts:
... linear temporal logic is a widely used method for ...
...relationship between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is a natural goal in this ...
...finite automata on finite words from lineartime temporal logic formulas further the relation between quantum ...
...relation between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is explored in terms of language ...
...quantum finite automata are definable in linear temporal logic except for measureonce oneway quantum finite ...

5  linear  4 
Excerpts:
... linear temporal logic is a widely used method ...
...the relationship between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is a natural goal in ...
...the relation between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is explored in terms of ...
...by quantum finite automata are definable in linear temporal logic except for measureonce oneway quantum ...

6  relationship  2 
Excerpts:
...checking and expressing the system specifications the relationship between theory of automata and logic had ...
...in the computer science investigation of the relationship between quantum finite automata and linear temporal ...

7  relation  1 
Excerpts:
...from lineartime temporal logic formulas further the relation between quantum finite automata and linear temporal ...

8  explored  1 
Excerpts:
...finite automata and linear temporal logic is explored in terms of language recognition and acceptance ...

9  terms  1 
Excerpts:
...and linear temporal logic is explored in terms of language recognition and acceptance probability we ...

Residual Contraction
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190913
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose and axiomatically characterize residual contractions, a new kind of contraction operators for belief bases. We establish that the class of partial meet contractions is a strict subclass of the class of residual contractions. We identify an extra condition that may be added to the definition of residual contractions, which is such that the class of residual contractions that satisfy it coincides with the class of partial meet contractions. We investigate the interrelations in the sense of (strict) inclusion among the class of residual contractions and other classes of well known contraction operators for belief bases. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  contractions  7 
Excerpts:
...paper we propose and axiomatically characterize residual contractions a new kind of contraction operators for ...
...establish that the class of partial meet contractions is a strict subclass of the class ...
...strict subclass of the class of residual contractions we identify an extra condition that may ...
...be added to the definition of residual contractions which is such that the class of ...
...is such that the class of residual contractions that satisfy it coincides with the class ...
...coincides with the class of partial meet contractions we investigate the interrelations in the sense ...
...strict inclusion among the class of residual contractions and other classes of well known contraction ...

1  residual  5 
Excerpts:
...this paper we propose and axiomatically characterize residual contractions a new kind of contraction operators ...
...a strict subclass of the class of residual contractions we identify an extra condition that ...
...may be added to the definition of residual contractions which is such that the class ...
...which is such that the class of residual contractions that satisfy it coincides with the ...
...of strict inclusion among the class of residual contractions and other classes of well known ...

2  belief  2 
Excerpts:
...a new kind of contraction operators for belief bases we establish that the class of ...
...classes of well known contraction operators for belief bases ...

3  partial  2 
Excerpts:
...bases we establish that the class of partial meet contractions is a strict subclass of ...
...satisfy it coincides with the class of partial meet contractions we investigate the interrelations in ...

4  strict  2 
Excerpts:
...class of partial meet contractions is a strict subclass of the class of residual contractions ...
...investigate the interrelations in the sense of strict inclusion among the class of residual contractions ...

5  operators  2 
Excerpts:
...residual contractions a new kind of contraction operators for belief bases we establish that the ...
...and other classes of well known contraction operators for belief bases ...

6  meet  2 
Excerpts:
...we establish that the class of partial meet contractions is a strict subclass of the ...
...it coincides with the class of partial meet contractions we investigate the interrelations in the ...

7  bases  2 
Excerpts:
...new kind of contraction operators for belief bases we establish that the class of partial ...
...of well known contraction operators for belief bases ...

8  contraction  2 
Excerpts:
...characterize residual contractions a new kind of contraction operators for belief bases we establish that ...
...contractions and other classes of well known contraction operators for belief bases ...

9  sense  1 
Excerpts:
...contractions we investigate the interrelations in the sense of strict inclusion among the class of ...

Truth Diagrams Versus Extant Notations for Propositional Logic
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190912
Abstract:
Truth diagrams (TDs) are introduced as a novel graphical representation for propositional logic (PL). To demonstrate their epistemic efficacy a set of 28 concepts are proposed that any comprehensive representation for PL should encompass. TDs address all the criteria whereas seven other existing representations for PL only provide partial coverage. These existing representations are: the linear formula notation, truth tables, a PL specific interpretation of Venn Diagrams, Frege's conceptual notation, diagrams from Wittgenstein's Tractatus, Pierce's alpha graphs and Gardner's shuttle diagrams. The comparison of the representations succeeds in distinguishing ideas that are fundamental to PL from features of common PL representations that are somewhat arbitrary. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  pl  6 
Excerpts:
...a novel graphical representation for propositional logic pl to demonstrate their epistemic efficacy a set ...
...are proposed that any comprehensive representation for pl should encompass tds address all the criteria ...
...criteria whereas seven other existing representations for pl only provide partial coverage these existing representations ...
...the linear formula notation truth tables a pl specific interpretation of venn diagrams freges conceptual ...
...in distinguishing ideas that are fundamental to pl from features of common pl representations that ...
...fundamental to pl from features of common pl representations that are somewhat arbitrary ...

1  representations  4 
Excerpts:
...all the criteria whereas seven other existing representations for pl only provide partial coverage these ...
...pl only provide partial coverage these existing representations are the linear formula notation truth tables ...
...gardners shuttle diagrams the comparison of the representations succeeds in distinguishing ideas that are fundamental ...
...to pl from features of common pl representations that are somewhat arbitrary ...

2  diagrams  4 
Excerpts:
... truth diagrams tds are introduced as a novel graphical ...
...tables a pl specific interpretation of venn diagrams freges conceptual notation diagrams from wittgensteins tractatus ...
...interpretation of venn diagrams freges conceptual notation diagrams from wittgensteins tractatus pierces alpha graphs and ...
...tractatus pierces alpha graphs and gardners shuttle diagrams the comparison of the representations succeeds in ...

3  existing  2 
Excerpts:
...address all the criteria whereas seven other existing representations for pl only provide partial coverage ...
...for pl only provide partial coverage these existing representations are the linear formula notation truth ...

4  representation  2 
Excerpts:
...tds are introduced as a novel graphical representation for propositional logic pl to demonstrate their ...
...28 concepts are proposed that any comprehensive representation for pl should encompass tds address all ...

5  truth  2 
Excerpts:
... truth diagrams tds are introduced as a novel ...
...existing representations are the linear formula notation truth tables a pl specific interpretation of venn ...

6  tds  2 
Excerpts:
... truth diagrams tds are introduced as a novel graphical representation ...
...any comprehensive representation for pl should encompass tds address all the criteria whereas seven other ...

7  notation  2 
Excerpts:
...these existing representations are the linear formula notation truth tables a pl specific interpretation of ...
...specific interpretation of venn diagrams freges conceptual notation diagrams from wittgensteins tractatus pierces alpha graphs ...

8  freges  1 
Excerpts:
...a pl specific interpretation of venn diagrams freges conceptual notation diagrams from wittgensteins tractatus pierces ...

9  conceptual  1 
Excerpts:
...pl specific interpretation of venn diagrams freges conceptual notation diagrams from wittgensteins tractatus pierces alpha ...

Formal Semantics and Applied Mathematics: An Inferential Account
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190905
Abstract:
In this paper, I utilise the growing literature on scientific modelling to investigate the nature of formal semantics from the perspective of the philosophy of science. Specifically, I incorporate the inferential framework proposed by Bueno and Colyvan (Nous 45(2): 345“374, 2011) in the philosophy of applied mathematics to offer an account of how formal semantics explains and models its data. This view produces a picture of formal semantic models as involving an embedded process of inference and representation applying indirectly to linguistic phenomena. The final aim of the paper is directed at proposing a novel account of the syntax“semantics interface while shedding light on empty categories, semantically null forms, underspecified content and compositionality as a whole. Word Count:
Confused Terms in Ordinary Language
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190904
Abstract:
Confused terms appear to signify more than one entity. Carnap (Meaning and necessity, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1956) maintained that any putative name that is associated with more than one object in a relevant universe of discourse fails to be a genuine name. Although many philosophers have agreed with Carnap, they have not always agreed among themselves about the truthvalues of atomic sentences containing such terms. Some hold that such atomic sentences are always false, and others claim they are always truthvalueless. Field (J Philos 70:462“481, 1973) maintained that confused terms can still refer, albeit partially, and offered a supervaluational account of their semantic properties on which some atomic sentences with confused terms can be true. After outlining many of the most important theoretical considerations for and against various semantic theories for such terms, we report the results of a study designed to investigate which of these accounts best accords with the truthvalue judgments of ordinary language users about sentences containing these terms. We found that naÃ¯ve participants view confused names as capable of successfully referring to one or more objects. Thus, semantic theories that judge them to involve total reference failure do not comport well with patterns of ordinary usage. Word Count:
Multiagent Logics for Reasoning About HigherOrder Upper and Lower Probabilities
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190903
Abstract:
We present a propositional and a firstorder logic for reasoning about higherorder upper and lower probabilities. We provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics and we prove decidability in the propositional case. Furthermore, we show that the introduced logics generalize some existing probability logics. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  logics  3 
Excerpts:
...provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics and we prove decidability in the propositional ...
...case furthermore we show that the introduced logics generalize some existing probability logics ...
...the introduced logics generalize some existing probability logics ...

1  propositional  2 
Excerpts:
... we present a propositional and a firstorder logic for reasoning about ...
...logics and we prove decidability in the propositional case furthermore we show that the introduced ...

2  case  1 
Excerpts:
...and we prove decidability in the propositional case furthermore we show that the introduced logics ...

3  decidability  1 
Excerpts:
...axiomatizations for the logics and we prove decidability in the propositional case furthermore we show ...

4  prove  1 
Excerpts:
...complete axiomatizations for the logics and we prove decidability in the propositional case furthermore we ...

5  furthermore  1 
Excerpts:
...we prove decidability in the propositional case furthermore we show that the introduced logics generalize ...

6  introduced  1 
Excerpts:
...propositional case furthermore we show that the introduced logics generalize some existing probability logics ...

7  probability  1 
Excerpts:
...that the introduced logics generalize some existing probability logics ...

8  existing  1 
Excerpts:
...show that the introduced logics generalize some existing probability logics ...

9  generalize  1 
Excerpts:
...furthermore we show that the introduced logics generalize some existing probability logics ...

FirstOrder Definability of Transition Structures
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190901
Abstract:
The transition semantics presented in Rumberg (J Log Lang Inf 25(1):77“108, 2016a) constitutes a finegrained framework for modeling the interrelation of modality and time in branching time structures. In that framework, sentences of the transition language
\(\mathcal {L}_\mathsf{t}\)
are evaluated on transition structures at pairs consisting of a moment and a set of transitions. In this paper, we provide a class of firstorder definable Kripke structures that preserves
\(\mathcal {L}_\mathsf{t}\)
validity w.r.t. transition structures. As a consequence, for a certain fragment of
\(\mathcal {L}_\mathsf{t}\)
, validity w.r.t. transition structures turns out to be axiomatizable. The result is then extended to the entire language
\(\mathcal {L}_\mathsf{t}\)
by means of a quite natural ˜Henkin move', i.e. by relaxing the notion of validity to bundled structures. Word Count:
Supercover Semantics for Deontic Action Logic
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190901
Abstract:
The semantics for a deontic action logic based on Boolean algebra is extended with an interpretation of action expressions in terms of sets of alternative actions, intended as a way to model choice. This results in a nonclassical interpretation of action expressions, while sentences not in the scope of deontic operators are kept classical. A deontic structure based on Simons' supercover semantics is used to interpret permission and obligation. It is argued that these constructions provide ways to handle various problems related to free choice permission. The main result is a sound and complete axiomatization of the semantics. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  action  3 
Excerpts:
... the semantics for a deontic action logic based on boolean algebra is extended ...
...algebra is extended with an interpretation of action expressions in terms of sets of alternative ...
...this results in a nonclassical interpretation of action expressions while sentences not in the scope ...

1  semantics  3 
Excerpts:
... the semantics for a deontic action logic based on ...
...a deontic structure based on simons supercover semantics is used to interpret permission and obligation ...
...a sound and complete axiomatization of the semantics ...

2  deontic  3 
Excerpts:
... the semantics for a deontic action logic based on boolean algebra is ...
...while sentences not in the scope of deontic operators are kept classical a deontic structure ...
...of deontic operators are kept classical a deontic structure based on simons supercover semantics is ...

3  expressions  2 
Excerpts:
...is extended with an interpretation of action expressions in terms of sets of alternative actions ...
...results in a nonclassical interpretation of action expressions while sentences not in the scope of ...

4  choice  2 
Excerpts:
...actions intended as a way to model choice this results in a nonclassical interpretation of ...
...to handle various problems related to free choice permission the main result is a sound ...

5  permission  2 
Excerpts:
...simons supercover semantics is used to interpret permission and obligation it is argued that these ...
...handle various problems related to free choice permission the main result is a sound and ...

6  interpretation  2 
Excerpts:
...on boolean algebra is extended with an interpretation of action expressions in terms of sets ...
...model choice this results in a nonclassical interpretation of action expressions while sentences not in ...

7  based  2 
Excerpts:
...the semantics for a deontic action logic based on boolean algebra is extended with an ...
...operators are kept classical a deontic structure based on simons supercover semantics is used to ...

8  constructions  1 
Excerpts:
...and obligation it is argued that these constructions provide ways to handle various problems related ...

9  provide  1 
Excerpts:
...obligation it is argued that these constructions provide ways to handle various problems related to ...

An Application of Peircean Triadic Logic: Modelling Vagueness
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190901
Abstract:
Development of decisionsupport and intelligent agent systems necessitates mathematical descriptions of uncertainty and fuzziness in order to model vagueness. This paper seeks to present an outline of Peirce's triadic logic as a practical new way to model vagueness in the context of artificial intelligence (AI). Charles Sanders Peirce (1839“1914) was an American scientist“philosopher and a great logician whose triadic logic is a culmination of the study of semiotics and the mathematical study of antiCantorean model of continuity and infinitesimals. After presenting Peircean semiotics within AI perspective, a mathematical formulation of a Peircean triadic set is given in relationship with classical and fuzzy sets. Using basic logical operators, all possible respective implication operators, biequivalence operators, valid rules of inference, and associative, distributive and commutative logical properties are derived and verified through the truth function approach. In order to suggest practical directions, aggregation operators for Peirce's triadic logic have been formulated. A mathematical formulation of a medical diagnostic problem and ER diagram of a library management system using Peirce's triadic relation show potential for further applications of the proposed triadic set and triadic logic. Alongside, a classical AI game'The Wumpus World'is implemented to show practical efficacy in comparison with binary implementation. Besides giving some preliminary formulations for trichotomous set theory and definition of finite automaton, development of hybrid architectures for intelligent agents and evolutionary computations are discussed as potential practical avenues for Peirce's triadic logic. Word Count:
On the Logic of Balance in Social Networks
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190824
Abstract:
Modal logics for reasoning about social networks is currently an active field of research. There is still a gap, however, between the state of the art in logical formalisations of concepts related to social networks and the much more mature field of social network analysis. In this paper we take a step to bridge that gap. One of the key foundations of social network analysis is balance theory, which is used to analyse signed social networks where agents can have positive (friends') or negative (enemies') relationships. Certain combinations of positive and negative relationships are considered to be unbalanced, or unstable'in particular the occurrence of cycles with an odd number of negative relationships. Especially relatively short cycles with an odd number of negative relationships are thought to put pressure on the agents to change one or more of the involved relationships from negative to positive or the other way around. Most existing logics for reasoning about social networks are defined for unsigned networks. In this paper we develop a modal logic for reasoning about structural properties of signed social networks, and give a sound and complete Hilbertstyle axiomatic system. Furthermore, we completely axiomatise classes of signed social networks that are balanced to a certain degree n, in the sense that there are no cycles of length up to n with an odd number of negative relationships. Finally, we completely axiomatise the class of all fully balanced complete signed social networks, i.e., networks where everyone is connected with everyone else. Axiomatic completeness is nontrivial because neither the balance properties, nor the dichotomy between positive and negative relations, are modally definable. The paper thus provides a logical basis for reasoning about signed social networks in general and balanced networks in particular. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  networks  11 
Excerpts:
... modal logics for reasoning about social networks is currently an active field of research ...
...logical formalisations of concepts related to social networks and the much more mature field of ...
...which is used to analyse signed social networks where agents can have positive friends or ...
...most existing logics for reasoning about social networks are defined for unsigned networks in this ...
...about social networks are defined for unsigned networks in this paper we develop a modal ...
...reasoning about structural properties of signed social networks and give a sound and complete hilbertstyle ...
...we completely axiomatise classes of signed social networks that are balanced to a certain degree ...
...of all fully balanced complete signed social networks ie networks where everyone is connected with ...
...fully balanced complete signed social networks ie networks where everyone is connected with everyone else ...
...logical basis for reasoning about signed social networks in general and balanced networks in particular ...
...signed social networks in general and balanced networks in particular ...

1  social  10 
Excerpts:
... modal logics for reasoning about social networks is currently an active field of ...
...in logical formalisations of concepts related to social networks and the much more mature field ...
...and the much more mature field of social network analysis in this paper we take ...
...gap one of the key foundations of social network analysis is balance theory which is ...
...theory which is used to analyse signed social networks where agents can have positive friends ...
...around most existing logics for reasoning about social networks are defined for unsigned networks in ...
...for reasoning about structural properties of signed social networks and give a sound and complete ...
...furthermore we completely axiomatise classes of signed social networks that are balanced to a certain ...
...class of all fully balanced complete signed social networks ie networks where everyone is connected ...
...a logical basis for reasoning about signed social networks in general and balanced networks in ...

2  negative  7 
Excerpts:
...where agents can have positive friends or negative enemies relationships certain combinations of positive and ...
...enemies relationships certain combinations of positive and negative relationships are considered to be unbalanced or ...
...of cycles with an odd number of negative relationships especially relatively short cycles with an ...
...short cycles with an odd number of negative relationships are thought to put pressure on ...
...or more of the involved relationships from negative to positive or the other way around ...
...to n with an odd number of negative relationships finally we completely axiomatise the class ...
...properties nor the dichotomy between positive and negative relations are modally definable the paper thus ...

3  relationships  6 
Excerpts:
...can have positive friends or negative enemies relationships certain combinations of positive and negative relationships ...
...relationships certain combinations of positive and negative relationships are considered to be unbalanced or unstablein ...
...cycles with an odd number of negative relationships especially relatively short cycles with an odd ...
...cycles with an odd number of negative relationships are thought to put pressure on the ...
...change one or more of the involved relationships from negative to positive or the other ...
...n with an odd number of negative relationships finally we completely axiomatise the class of ...

4  signed  5 
Excerpts:
...balance theory which is used to analyse signed social networks where agents can have positive ...
...logic for reasoning about structural properties of signed social networks and give a sound and ...
...system furthermore we completely axiomatise classes of signed social networks that are balanced to a ...
...the class of all fully balanced complete signed social networks ie networks where everyone is ...
...provides a logical basis for reasoning about signed social networks in general and balanced networks ...

5  reasoning  4 
Excerpts:
... modal logics for reasoning about social networks is currently an active ...
...other way around most existing logics for reasoning about social networks are defined for unsigned ...
...paper we develop a modal logic for reasoning about structural properties of signed social networks ...
...paper thus provides a logical basis for reasoning about signed social networks in general and ...

6  positive  4 
Excerpts:
...signed social networks where agents can have positive friends or negative enemies relationships certain combinations ...
...or negative enemies relationships certain combinations of positive and negative relationships are considered to be ...
...of the involved relationships from negative to positive or the other way around most existing ...
...the balance properties nor the dichotomy between positive and negative relations are modally definable the ...

7  odd  3 
Excerpts:
...particular the occurrence of cycles with an odd number of negative relationships especially relatively short ...
...relationships especially relatively short cycles with an odd number of negative relationships are thought to ...
...of length up to n with an odd number of negative relationships finally we completely ...

8  balanced  3 
Excerpts:
...classes of signed social networks that are balanced to a certain degree n in the ...
...completely axiomatise the class of all fully balanced complete signed social networks ie networks where ...
...about signed social networks in general and balanced networks in particular ...

9  cycles  3 
Excerpts:
...unbalanced or unstablein particular the occurrence of cycles with an odd number of negative relationships ...
...number of negative relationships especially relatively short cycles with an odd number of negative relationships ...
...in the sense that there are no cycles of length up to n with an ...

Introduction
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190601
Abstract:
Word Count:
