A FourValued Dynamic Epistemic Logic
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20200210
Abstract:
Epistemic logic is usually employed to model two aspects of a situation: the factual and the epistemic aspects. Truth, however, is not always attainable, and in many cases we are forced to reason only with whatever information is available to us. In this paper, we will explore a fourvalued epistemic logic designed to deal with these situations, where agents have only knowledge about the available information (or evidence), which can be incomplete or conflicting, but not explicitly about facts. This layer of available information or evidence, which is the object of the agents' knowledge, can be seen as a database. By adopting this sceptical posture in our semantics, we prepare the ground for logics where the notion of knowledge'or more appropriately, belief'is entirely based on evidence. The technical results include a set of reduction axioms for public announcements, correspondence proofs, and a complete tableau system. In summary, our contributions are twofold: on the one hand we present an intuition and possible application for manyvalued modal logics, and on the other hand we develop a logic that models the dynamics of evidence in a simple and intuitively clear fashion. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  evidence  4 
Excerpts:
...only knowledge about the available information or evidence which can be incomplete or conflicting but ...
...facts this layer of available information or evidence which is the object of the agents ...
...knowledgeor more appropriately beliefis entirely based on evidence the technical results include a set of ...
...a logic that models the dynamics of evidence in a simple and intuitively clear fashion ...

1  epistemic  3 
Excerpts:
... epistemic logic is usually employed to model two ...
...of a situation the factual and the epistemic aspects truth however is not always attainable ...
...this paper we will explore a fourvalued epistemic logic designed to deal with these situations ...

2  logic  3 
Excerpts:
... epistemic logic is usually employed to model two aspects ...
...paper we will explore a fourvalued epistemic logic designed to deal with these situations where ...
...on the other hand we develop a logic that models the dynamics of evidence in ...

3  available  3 
Excerpts:
...to reason only with whatever information is available to us in this paper we will ...
...where agents have only knowledge about the available information or evidence which can be incomplete ...
...not explicitly about facts this layer of available information or evidence which is the object ...

4  information  3 
Excerpts:
...are forced to reason only with whatever information is available to us in this paper ...
...agents have only knowledge about the available information or evidence which can be incomplete or ...
...explicitly about facts this layer of available information or evidence which is the object of ...

5  only  2 
Excerpts:
...many cases we are forced to reason only with whatever information is available to us ...
...deal with these situations where agents have only knowledge about the available information or evidence ...

6  knowledge  2 
Excerpts:
...with these situations where agents have only knowledge about the available information or evidence which ...
...which is the object of the agents knowledge can be seen as a database by ...

7  agents  2 
Excerpts:
...designed to deal with these situations where agents have only knowledge about the available information ...
...evidence which is the object of the agents knowledge can be seen as a database ...

8  where  2 
Excerpts:
...logic designed to deal with these situations where agents have only knowledge about the available ...
...semantics we prepare the ground for logics where the notion of knowledgeor more appropriately beliefis ...

9  hand  2 
Excerpts:
...our contributions are twofold on the one hand we present an intuition and possible application ...
...manyvalued modal logics and on the other hand we develop a logic that models the ...

A Closeness and PriorityBased Logical Study of Social Network Creation
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20200128
Abstract:
This paper is part of an ongoing programme on the study of the logical aspects of social network formation. It recalls the socalled social network model, discussing the properties of a notion of closeness between agents (in terms of the number of traits they have in common); then introduces an extended social network model in which different agents might assign different values to different traits, discussing the properties of the notion of weighted closeness that arises. These notions are used to define social network creation operations by means of a threshold strategy. The paper studies the properties of the social networks the updates create, providing sound and complete axiom systems for formal languages describing these updates' effects. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  social  5 
Excerpts:
...the study of the logical aspects of social network formation it recalls the socalled social ...
...social network formation it recalls the socalled social network model discussing the properties of a ...
...have in common then introduces an extended social network model in which different agents might ...
...arises these notions are used to define social network creation operations by means of a ...
...the paper studies the properties of the social networks the updates create providing sound and ...

1  network  4 
Excerpts:
...study of the logical aspects of social network formation it recalls the socalled social network ...
...network formation it recalls the socalled social network model discussing the properties of a notion ...
...in common then introduces an extended social network model in which different agents might assign ...
...these notions are used to define social network creation operations by means of a threshold ...

2  different  3 
Excerpts:
...an extended social network model in which different agents might assign different values to different ...
...model in which different agents might assign different values to different traits discussing the properties ...
...different agents might assign different values to different traits discussing the properties of the notion ...

3  properties  3 
Excerpts:
...the socalled social network model discussing the properties of a notion of closeness between agents ...
...different values to different traits discussing the properties of the notion of weighted closeness that ...
...a threshold strategy the paper studies the properties of the social networks the updates create ...

4  model  2 
Excerpts:
...formation it recalls the socalled social network model discussing the properties of a notion of ...
...common then introduces an extended social network model in which different agents might assign different ...

5  closeness  2 
Excerpts:
...discussing the properties of a notion of closeness between agents in terms of the number ...
...the properties of the notion of weighted closeness that arises these notions are used to ...

6  updates  2 
Excerpts:
...the properties of the social networks the updates create providing sound and complete axiom systems ...
...axiom systems for formal languages describing these updates effects ...

7  discussing  2 
Excerpts:
...it recalls the socalled social network model discussing the properties of a notion of closeness ...
...might assign different values to different traits discussing the properties of the notion of weighted ...

8  notion  2 
Excerpts:
...network model discussing the properties of a notion of closeness between agents in terms of ...
...different traits discussing the properties of the notion of weighted closeness that arises these notions ...

9  traits  2 
Excerpts:
...agents in terms of the number of traits they have in common then introduces an ...
...agents might assign different values to different traits discussing the properties of the notion of ...

Natural Density and the Quantifier Most'
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20200103
Abstract:
This paper proposes a formalization of the class of sentences quantified by most, which is also interpreted as proportion of or majority of depending on the domain of discourse. We consider sentences of the form Most A are B', where A and B are plural nouns and the interpretations of A and B are infinite subsets of \( \mathbb {N} \). There are two widely used semantics for Most A are B: (i) \(C(A \cap B) > C(A\setminus B) \) and (ii) \( C(A\cap B) > \dfrac{C(A)}{2} \), where C(X) denotes the cardinality of a given finite set X. Although (i) is more descriptive than (ii), it also produces a considerable amount of insensitivity for certain sets. Since the quantifier most has a solid cardinal behaviour under the interpretation majority and has a slightly more statistical behaviour under the interpretation proportional of, we consider an alternative approach in deciding quantityrelated statements regarding infinite sets. For this we introduce a new semantics using natural density for sentences in which interpretations of their nouns are infinite subsets of \( \mathbb {N} \), along with a list of the axiomatization of the concept of natural density. In other words, we take the standard definition of the semantics of most but define it as applying to finite approximations of infinite sets computed to the limit. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  b  7 
Excerpts:
...sentences of the form most a are b where a and b are plural nouns ...
...most a are b where a and b are plural nouns and the interpretations of ...
...nouns and the interpretations of a and b are infinite subsets of mathbb n ...
...widely used semantics for most a are b i ca cap b gt casetminus b ...
...most a are b i ca cap b gt casetminus b and ii ...
...b i ca cap b gt casetminus b and ii cacap b gt ...
...casetminus b and ii cacap b gt dfracca2 where cx denotes the ...

1  infinite  4 
Excerpts:
...the interpretations of a and b are infinite subsets of mathbb n there ...
...alternative approach in deciding quantityrelated statements regarding infinite sets for this we introduce a new ...
...in which interpretations of their nouns are infinite subsets of mathbb n along ...
...it as applying to finite approximations of infinite sets computed to the limit ...

2  sentences  3 
Excerpts:
...proposes a formalization of the class of sentences quantified by most which is also interpreted ...
...on the domain of discourse we consider sentences of the form most a are b ...
...a new semantics using natural density for sentences in which interpretations of their nouns are ...

3  sets  3 
Excerpts:
...a considerable amount of insensitivity for certain sets since the quantifier most has a solid ...
...approach in deciding quantityrelated statements regarding infinite sets for this we introduce a new semantics ...
...as applying to finite approximations of infinite sets computed to the limit ...

4  semantics  3 
Excerpts:
...n there are two widely used semantics for most a are b i ca ...
...sets for this we introduce a new semantics using natural density for sentences in which ...
...we take the standard definition of the semantics of most but define it as applying ...

5  under  2 
Excerpts:
...quantifier most has a solid cardinal behaviour under the interpretation majority and has a slightly ...
...and has a slightly more statistical behaviour under the interpretation proportional of we consider an ...

6  density  2 
Excerpts:
...we introduce a new semantics using natural density for sentences in which interpretations of their ...
...the axiomatization of the concept of natural density in other words we take the standard ...

7  ii  2 
Excerpts:
...cap b gt casetminus b and ii cacap b gt dfracca2 where ...
...x although i is more descriptive than ii it also produces a considerable amount of ...

8  finite  2 
Excerpts:
...cx denotes the cardinality of a given finite set x although i is more descriptive ...
...most but define it as applying to finite approximations of infinite sets computed to the ...

9  gt  2 
Excerpts:
...a are b i ca cap b gt casetminus b and ii cacap ...
...b and ii cacap b gt dfracca2 where cx denotes the cardinality ...

Towards an Algebraic Semantics for Implicatives
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191204
Abstract:
An algebraic semantics, based on factor algebras, for oneway and twoway implicative verbs is proposed. Implicative verbs denote elements of filters or of ideals generated by identity functions in factor algebras. This semantics explains in particular the problem of implicational equivalence raised by twoway implicative verbs, and shows that the negation necessary to establish the implicativity of these verbs is the negation which preserves the presuppositions of sentences with implicative verbs. In addition, it follows from the proposed semantics that any two implicative verbs denoting in the same algebra but belonging to different categories, are semantically related.
Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  verbs  6 
Excerpts:
...factor algebras for oneway and twoway implicative verbs is proposed implicative verbs denote elements of ...
...and twoway implicative verbs is proposed implicative verbs denote elements of filters or of ideals ...
...of implicational equivalence raised by twoway implicative verbs and shows that the negation necessary to ...
...necessary to establish the implicativity of these verbs is the negation which preserves the presuppositions ...
...preserves the presuppositions of sentences with implicative verbs in addition it follows from the proposed ...
...the proposed semantics that any two implicative verbs denoting in the same algebra but belonging ...

1  implicative  5 
Excerpts:
...on factor algebras for oneway and twoway implicative verbs is proposed implicative verbs denote elements ...
...oneway and twoway implicative verbs is proposed implicative verbs denote elements of filters or of ...
...problem of implicational equivalence raised by twoway implicative verbs and shows that the negation necessary ...
...which preserves the presuppositions of sentences with implicative verbs in addition it follows from the ...
...from the proposed semantics that any two implicative verbs denoting in the same algebra but ...

2  semantics  3 
Excerpts:
... an algebraic semantics based on factor algebras for oneway and ...
...by identity functions in factor algebras this semantics explains in particular the problem of implicational ...
...in addition it follows from the proposed semantics that any two implicative verbs denoting in ...

3  factor  2 
Excerpts:
... an algebraic semantics based on factor algebras for oneway and twoway implicative verbs ...
...of ideals generated by identity functions in factor algebras this semantics explains in particular the ...

4  algebras  2 
Excerpts:
... an algebraic semantics based on factor algebras for oneway and twoway implicative verbs is ...
...ideals generated by identity functions in factor algebras this semantics explains in particular the problem ...

5  twoway  2 
Excerpts:
...based on factor algebras for oneway and twoway implicative verbs is proposed implicative verbs denote ...
...the problem of implicational equivalence raised by twoway implicative verbs and shows that the negation ...

6  proposed  2 
Excerpts:
...for oneway and twoway implicative verbs is proposed implicative verbs denote elements of filters or ...
...verbs in addition it follows from the proposed semantics that any two implicative verbs denoting ...

7  negation  2 
Excerpts:
...twoway implicative verbs and shows that the negation necessary to establish the implicativity of these ...
...the implicativity of these verbs is the negation which preserves the presuppositions of sentences with ...

8  algebraic  1 
Excerpts:
... an algebraic semantics based on factor algebras for oneway ...

9  follows  1 
Excerpts:
...sentences with implicative verbs in addition it follows from the proposed semantics that any two ...

A Maximal Exclusion' Approach to Structural Underspecification in Dynamic Syntax
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191203
Abstract:
˜Case' and ˜grammatical relations' are central to syntactic theory, but rigorous treatments of these concepts in surfaceoriented grammars such as Dynamic Syntax are pending. In this respect, Japanese is worthy of mention; in this language, the nominative case particle ga, which typically marks a subject, may mark an object in certain syntactic contexts, and more than one instance of ga may be present within a single clause. These patterns cannot be captured if we simply assume that ga marks a subject. In the present article, we aim to advance formal aspects of the framework, especially the mechanism of ˜structural underspecification,' by proposing that the parse of a case particle maximally excludes potential landing sites of an unfixed node at the time of parsing the case particle, delaying the resolution of the unfixed node until a subsequent stage of structure building. This maximal exclusion approach to structural underspecification accounts for a range of case marking patterns and their connections with grammatical relations. Word Count:
Choice revision
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191201
Abstract:
Choice revision is a sort of nonprioritized multiple revision, in which the agent partially accepts the new information represented by a set of sentences. We investigate the construction of choice revision based on a new approach to belief change called descriptor revision. We prove that each of two variants of choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized with a set of plausible postulates, assuming that the object language is finite. Furthermore, we introduce an alternative modelling for choice revision, which is based on a type of relation on sets of sentences, named multiple believability relation. We show without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically characterized with the same sets of postulates that we proposed for the choice revision based on descriptor revision, whenever the relations satisfy certain rationality conditions. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  revision  9 
Excerpts:
... choice revision is a sort of nonprioritized multiple revision ...
...revision is a sort of nonprioritized multiple revision in which the agent partially accepts the ...
...sentences we investigate the construction of choice revision based on a new approach to belief ...
...new approach to belief change called descriptor revision we prove that each of two variants ...
...that each of two variants of choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized ...
...we introduce an alternative modelling for choice revision which is based on a type of ...
...without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically characterized ...
...postulates that we proposed for the choice revision based on descriptor revision whenever the relations ...
...for the choice revision based on descriptor revision whenever the relations satisfy certain rationality conditions ...

1  choice  6 
Excerpts:
... choice revision is a sort of nonprioritized multiple ...
...of sentences we investigate the construction of choice revision based on a new approach to ...
...prove that each of two variants of choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically ...
...furthermore we introduce an alternative modelling for choice revision which is based on a type ...
...show without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically ...
...of postulates that we proposed for the choice revision based on descriptor revision whenever the ...

2  based  4 
Excerpts:
...we investigate the construction of choice revision based on a new approach to belief change ...
...each of two variants of choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized with ...
...alternative modelling for choice revision which is based on a type of relation on sets ...
...that we proposed for the choice revision based on descriptor revision whenever the relations satisfy ...

3  construction  2 
Excerpts:
...a set of sentences we investigate the construction of choice revision based on a new ...
...variants of choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized with a set of ...

4  language  2 
Excerpts:
...of plausible postulates assuming that the object language is finite furthermore we introduce an alternative ...
...relation we show without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed from such relations ...

5  assuming  2 
Excerpts:
...characterized with a set of plausible postulates assuming that the object language is finite furthermore ...
...named multiple believability relation we show without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed ...

6  postulates  2 
Excerpts:
...axiomatically characterized with a set of plausible postulates assuming that the object language is finite ...
...axiomatically characterized with the same sets of postulates that we proposed for the choice revision ...

7  characterized  2 
Excerpts:
...revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized with a set of plausible postulates assuming ...
...revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically characterized with the same sets of postulates that ...

8  axiomatically  2 
Excerpts:
...choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized with a set of plausible postulates ...
...choice revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically characterized with the same sets of postulates ...

9  relation  2 
Excerpts:
...which is based on a type of relation on sets of sentences named multiple believability ...
...on sets of sentences named multiple believability relation we show without assuming a finite language ...

Inductive Reasoning in Social Choice Theory
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191201
Abstract:
The usual procedure in the theory of social choice consists in postulating some desirable properties which an aggregation procedure should verify and derive from them the features of a corresponding social choice function and the outcomes that arise at each possible profile of preferences. In this paper we invert this line of reasoning and try to infer, up from what we call social situations (each one consisting of a profile and the associated social ordering) the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation procedure. This inference process, which extracts intensional from extensional information can be seen as an exercise in qualitative statistics'. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  social  4 
Excerpts:
...the usual procedure in the theory of social choice consists in postulating some desirable properties ...
...from them the features of a corresponding social choice function and the outcomes that arise ...
...to infer up from what we call social situations each one consisting of a profile ...
...consisting of a profile and the associated social ordering the criteria verified in the implicit ...

1  procedure  3 
Excerpts:
... the usual procedure in the theory of social choice consists ...
...postulating some desirable properties which an aggregation procedure should verify and derive from them the ...
...the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation procedure this inference process which extracts intensional from ...

2  choice  2 
Excerpts:
...usual procedure in the theory of social choice consists in postulating some desirable properties which ...
...them the features of a corresponding social choice function and the outcomes that arise at ...

3  profile  2 
Excerpts:
...the outcomes that arise at each possible profile of preferences in this paper we invert ...
...social situations each one consisting of a profile and the associated social ordering the criteria ...

4  aggregation  2 
Excerpts:
...in postulating some desirable properties which an aggregation procedure should verify and derive from them ...
...ordering the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation procedure this inference process which extracts intensional ...

5  each  2 
Excerpts:
...function and the outcomes that arise at each possible profile of preferences in this paper ...
...up from what we call social situations each one consisting of a profile and the ...

6  usual  1 
Excerpts:
... the usual procedure in the theory of social choice ...

7  verified  1 
Excerpts:
...and the associated social ordering the criteria verified in the implicit aggregation procedure this inference ...

8  call  1 
Excerpts:
...try to infer up from what we call social situations each one consisting of a ...

9  situations  1 
Excerpts:
...infer up from what we call social situations each one consisting of a profile and ...

Lewis' Triviality for Quasi Probabilities
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191201
Abstract:
According to Stalnaker's Thesis (S), the probability of a conditional is the conditional probability. Under some mild conditions, the thesis trivialises probabilities and conditionals, as initially shown by David Lewis. This article asks the following question: does (S) still lead to triviality, if the probability function in (S) is replaced by a probabilitylike function? The article considers plausibility functions, in the sense of Friedman and Halpern, which additionally mimic probabilistic additivity and conditionalisation. These quasi probabilities comprise Friedman“Halpern's conditional plausibility spaces, as well as other known representations of conditional doxastic states. The paper proves Lewis' triviality for quasi probabilities and discusses how this has implications for three other prominent strategies to avoid Lewis' triviality: (1) Adams' thesis, where the probability function on the left in (S) is replaced by a probabilitylike function, (2) abandoning conditionalisation, where probability conditionalisation on the right in (S) is replaced by another propositional update procedure and (3) the approximation thesis, where equality in (S) is replaced by approximation. The paper also shows that Lewis' triviality result is really about ˜additiveness' and ˜conditionality'. Word Count:
Translation Invariance and Miller's Weather Example
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191201
Abstract:
In his 1974 paper Popper's qualitative theory of verisimilitude' published in the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science David Miller gave his so called ˜Weather Example' to argue that the Hamming distance between constituents is flawed as a measure of proximity to truth since the former is not, unlike the latter, translation invariant. In this present paper we generalise David Miller's Weather Example in both the unary and polyadic cases, characterising precisely which permutations of constituents/atoms can be effected by translations. In turn this suggests a metaprinciple of the rational assignment of subjective probabilities, that rational principles should be preserved under translations, which we formalise and give a particular characterisation of in the context of Unary Pure Inductive Logic. Word Count:
Formalizing GDPR Provisions in Reified I/O Logic: The DAPRECO Knowledge Base
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191119
Abstract:
The DAPRECO knowledge base is the main outcome of the interdisciplinary project bearing the same name (https://www.fnr.lu/projects/dataprotectionregulationcompliance). It is a repository of rules written in LegalRuleML, an XML formalism designed to be a standard for representing the semantic and logical content of legal documents. The rules represent the provisions of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the new Regulation that is significantly affecting the digital market in the European Union and beyond. The DAPRECO knowledge base builds upon the Privacy Ontology (PrOnto) (Palmirani et al in Proceedings of the 7th international conference on electronic government and the information systems perspective: technologyenabled innovation for democracy, government and governance, 2018c), which provides a model for the legal concepts involved in the GDPR, by adding a further layer of constraints in the form of ifthen rules, referring either to standard first order logic implications or to deontic statements. Ifthen rules are formalized in reified Input/Output logic (Robaldo and Sun in J Log Comput 7, 2017) and then codified in LegalRuleML. Reified Input/Output logic is an application of standard Input/Output logic for legal reasoning, in which Input/Output logic is combined with the reificationbased approach in Hobbs and Gordon (A formal theory of commonsense psychology, how people think people think. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2017). The DAPRECO knowledge base is then a case study for reified Input/Output logic, and it shows that the formalism indeed appears to be a good candidate to effectively formalize, via uniform and simple (flat) representations, complex linguistic/deontic phenomena that may be found in legal texts. To date, the DAPRECO knowledge base is the biggest knowledge base in LegalRuleML and Input/Output logic freely available online (https://github.com/dapreco/daprecokb/blob/master/gdpr/rioKB_GDPR.xml). Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  logic  7 
Excerpts:
...rules referring either to standard first order logic implications or to deontic statements ifthen rules ...
...ifthen rules are formalized in reified inputoutput logic robaldo and sun in j log comput ...
...and then codified in legalruleml reified inputoutput logic is an application of standard inputoutput logic ...
...logic is an application of standard inputoutput logic for legal reasoning in which inputoutput logic ...
...logic for legal reasoning in which inputoutput logic is combined with the reificationbased approach in ...
...then a case study for reified inputoutput logic and it shows that the formalism indeed ...
...biggest knowledge base in legalruleml and inputoutput logic freely available online httpsgithubcomdaprecodaprecokbblobmastergdprriokbgdprxml ...

1  inputoutput  6 
Excerpts:
...statements ifthen rules are formalized in reified inputoutput logic robaldo and sun in j log ...
...2017 and then codified in legalruleml reified inputoutput logic is an application of standard inputoutput ...
...inputoutput logic is an application of standard inputoutput logic for legal reasoning in which inputoutput ...
...inputoutput logic for legal reasoning in which inputoutput logic is combined with the reificationbased approach ...
...is then a case study for reified inputoutput logic and it shows that the formalism ...
...the biggest knowledge base in legalruleml and inputoutput logic freely available online httpsgithubcomdaprecodaprecokbblobmastergdprriokbgdprxml ...

2  knowledge  5 
Excerpts:
... the dapreco knowledge base is the main outcome of the ...
...the european union and beyond the dapreco knowledge base builds upon the privacy ontology pronto ...
...cambridge university press cambridge 2017 the dapreco knowledge base is then a case study for ...
...in legal texts to date the dapreco knowledge base is the biggest knowledge base in ...
...the dapreco knowledge base is the biggest knowledge base in legalruleml and inputoutput logic freely ...

3  base  5 
Excerpts:
... the dapreco knowledge base is the main outcome of the interdisciplinary ...
...european union and beyond the dapreco knowledge base builds upon the privacy ontology pronto palmirani ...
...university press cambridge 2017 the dapreco knowledge base is then a case study for reified ...
...legal texts to date the dapreco knowledge base is the biggest knowledge base in legalruleml ...
...dapreco knowledge base is the biggest knowledge base in legalruleml and inputoutput logic freely available ...

4  dapreco  4 
Excerpts:
... the dapreco knowledge base is the main outcome of ...
...in the european union and beyond the dapreco knowledge base builds upon the privacy ontology ...
...think cambridge university press cambridge 2017 the dapreco knowledge base is then a case study ...
...found in legal texts to date the dapreco knowledge base is the biggest knowledge base ...

5  legal  4 
Excerpts:
...representing the semantic and logical content of legal documents the rules represent the provisions of ...
...2018c which provides a model for the legal concepts involved in the gdpr by adding ...
...an application of standard inputoutput logic for legal reasoning in which inputoutput logic is combined ...
...linguisticdeontic phenomena that may be found in legal texts to date the dapreco knowledge base ...

6  rules  4 
Excerpts:
...name httpswwwfnrluprojectsdataprotectionregulationcompliance it is a repository of rules written in legalruleml an xml formalism designed ...
...and logical content of legal documents the rules represent the provisions of the general data ...
...of constraints in the form of ifthen rules referring either to standard first order logic ...
...logic implications or to deontic statements ifthen rules are formalized in reified inputoutput logic robaldo ...

7  standard  3 
Excerpts:
...an xml formalism designed to be a standard for representing the semantic and logical content ...
...form of ifthen rules referring either to standard first order logic implications or to deontic ...
...reified inputoutput logic is an application of standard inputoutput logic for legal reasoning in which ...

8  reified  3 
Excerpts:
...deontic statements ifthen rules are formalized in reified inputoutput logic robaldo and sun in j ...
...7 2017 and then codified in legalruleml reified inputoutput logic is an application of standard ...
...base is then a case study for reified inputoutput logic and it shows that the ...

9  legalruleml  3 
Excerpts:
...is a repository of rules written in legalruleml an xml formalism designed to be a ...
...comput 7 2017 and then codified in legalruleml reified inputoutput logic is an application of ...
...base is the biggest knowledge base in legalruleml and inputoutput logic freely available online httpsgithubcomdaprecodaprecokbblobmastergdprriokbgdprxml ...

A History Based Logic for Dynamic Preference Updates
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191112
Abstract:
History based models suggest a processbased approach to epistemic and temporal reasoning. In this work, we introduce preferences to history based models. Motivated by game theoretical observations, we discuss how preferences can dynamically be updated in history based models. Following, we consider arrow update logic and event calculus, and give history based models for these logics. This allows us to relate dynamic logics of history based models to a broader framework. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  history  5 
Excerpts:
... history based models suggest a processbased approach to ...
...in this work we introduce preferences to history based models motivated by game theoretical observations ...
...how preferences can dynamically be updated in history based models following we consider arrow update ...
...update logic and event calculus and give history based models for these logics this allows ...
...allows us to relate dynamic logics of history based models to a broader framework ...

1  based  5 
Excerpts:
... history based models suggest a processbased approach to epistemic ...
...this work we introduce preferences to history based models motivated by game theoretical observations we ...
...preferences can dynamically be updated in history based models following we consider arrow update logic ...
...logic and event calculus and give history based models for these logics this allows us ...
...us to relate dynamic logics of history based models to a broader framework ...

2  models  5 
Excerpts:
... history based models suggest a processbased approach to epistemic and ...
...work we introduce preferences to history based models motivated by game theoretical observations we discuss ...
...can dynamically be updated in history based models following we consider arrow update logic and ...
...and event calculus and give history based models for these logics this allows us to ...
...to relate dynamic logics of history based models to a broader framework ...

3  logics  2 
Excerpts:
...and give history based models for these logics this allows us to relate dynamic logics ...
...logics this allows us to relate dynamic logics of history based models to a broader ...

4  preferences  2 
Excerpts:
...temporal reasoning in this work we introduce preferences to history based models motivated by game ...
...by game theoretical observations we discuss how preferences can dynamically be updated in history based ...

5  broader  1 
Excerpts:
...logics of history based models to a broader framework ...

6  dynamic  1 
Excerpts:
...these logics this allows us to relate dynamic logics of history based models to a ...

7  relate  1 
Excerpts:
...for these logics this allows us to relate dynamic logics of history based models to ...

8  allows  1 
Excerpts:
...history based models for these logics this allows us to relate dynamic logics of history ...

9  following  1 
Excerpts:
...dynamically be updated in history based models following we consider arrow update logic and event ...

The Class of All Natural Implicative Expansions of Kleene's Strong Logic Functionally Equivalent to Åkasiewicz's 3Valued Logic Å3
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191102
Abstract:
We consider the logics determined by the set of all natural implicative expansions of Kleene's strong 3valued matrix (with both only one and two designated values) and select the class of all logics functionally equivalent to Åukasiewicz's 3valued logic Å3. The concept of a natural implicative matrix' is based upon the notion of a natural conditional' defined in Tomova (Rep Math Log 47:173“182, 2012). Word Count:
A Note on the Issue of Cohesiveness in Canonical Models
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191026
Abstract:
In their presentation of canonical models for normal systems of modal logic, Hughes and Cresswell observe that some of these models are based on a frame which can be also thought of as a collection of two or more isolated frames; they call such frames ˜noncohesive'. The problem of checking whether the canonical model of a given system is cohesive is still rather unexplored and no general decision procedure is available. The main contribution of this article consists in introducing a method which is sufficient to show that canonical models of some relevant classes of normal monomodal and bimodal systems are always noncohesive.
Word Count:
The Thin Red Line, Molinism, and the Flow of Time
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20191026
Abstract:
In addressing the problem of the (in)compatibility of divine foreknowledge and human freedom, philosophers of religion encounter problems regarding the metaphysics and structure of time. Some models of temporal logic developed for completely independent reasons have proved especially appropriate for representing the temporal structure of the world as Molinism conceives it. In particular, some models of the Thin Red Line (
\(\mathsf {TRL}\)
) seem to imply that conditionals of freedom are true or false, as Molinists maintain. Noting the resemblance between Molinism and
\(\mathsf {TRL}\)
models, Restall (Molinism and the thin red line. In: Perszyk K (ed) Molinism: the contemporary debate, pp 227“239, 2011) has advanced some criticisms of Molinism that have also been leveled against
\(\mathsf {TRL}\)
models. In particular, Restall believes that the implication
\(p \rightarrow \mathbf {HF}p\)
is not true in
\(\mathsf {TRL}\)
models. Because Molinists must also accept that this implication is not true, this is a problem for them. We will show that Restall's criticism is wide of the mark. Firstly, it will be demonstrated that in many open future models (not just
\(\mathsf {TRL}\)
) the implication
\(p \rightarrow \mathbf {HF}p\)
is invalid. Secondly, while it is possible to account for this implication, some modifications are required in respect of the branching time semantics. In proposing one such modification, we show that this new semantics can be adopted by advocates of the
\(\mathsf {TRL}\)
and, as a consequence, by Molinists as well. We conclude that the principle stated by Restall is either a problem for many open future models (not just for Molinists) or can be accounted for by these models and so is not a problem for Molinists either. Word Count:
Group Conformity in Social Networks
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190926
Abstract:
Diffusion in social networks is a result of agents' natural desires to conform to the behavioral patterns of their peers. In this article we show that the recently proposed propositional opinion diffusion model' could be used to model an agent's conformity to different social groups that the same agent might belong to, rather than conformity to the society as whole. The main technical contribution of this article is a sound and complete logical system describing the properties of the influence relation in this model. The logical system is an extension of Armstrong's axioms from database theory by one new axiom that captures the topological structure of the network. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  model  3 
Excerpts:
...that the recently proposed propositional opinion diffusion model could be used to model an agents ...
...opinion diffusion model could be used to model an agents conformity to different social groups ...
...properties of the influence relation in this model the logical system is an extension of ...

1  diffusion  2 
Excerpts:
... diffusion in social networks is a result of ...
...show that the recently proposed propositional opinion diffusion model could be used to model an ...

2  social  2 
Excerpts:
... diffusion in social networks is a result of agents natural ...
...to model an agents conformity to different social groups that the same agent might belong ...

3  agents  2 
Excerpts:
...in social networks is a result of agents natural desires to conform to the behavioral ...
...model could be used to model an agents conformity to different social groups that the ...

4  conformity  2 
Excerpts:
...could be used to model an agents conformity to different social groups that the same ...
...same agent might belong to rather than conformity to the society as whole the main ...

5  logical  2 
Excerpts:
...this article is a sound and complete logical system describing the properties of the influence ...
...the influence relation in this model the logical system is an extension of armstrongs axioms ...

6  system  2 
Excerpts:
...article is a sound and complete logical system describing the properties of the influence relation ...
...influence relation in this model the logical system is an extension of armstrongs axioms from ...

7  article  2 
Excerpts:
...behavioral patterns of their peers in this article we show that the recently proposed propositional ...
...whole the main technical contribution of this article is a sound and complete logical system ...

8  properties  1 
Excerpts:
...sound and complete logical system describing the properties of the influence relation in this model ...

9  technical  1 
Excerpts:
...to the society as whole the main technical contribution of this article is a sound ...

On Relation Between Linear Temporal Logic and Quantum Finite Automata
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190914
Abstract:
Linear temporal logic is a widely used method for verification of model checking and expressing the system specifications. The relationship between theory of automata and logic had a great influence in the computer science. Investigation of the relationship between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is a natural goal. In this paper, we present a construction of quantum finite automata on finite words from lineartime temporal logic formulas. Further, the relation between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is explored in terms of language recognition and acceptance probability. We have shown that the class of languages accepted by quantum finite automata are definable in linear temporal logic, except for measureonce oneway quantum finite automata. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  finite  6 
Excerpts:
...science investigation of the relationship between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is a ...
...paper we present a construction of quantum finite automata on finite words from lineartime temporal ...
...a construction of quantum finite automata on finite words from lineartime temporal logic formulas further ...
...logic formulas further the relation between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is explored ...
...the class of languages accepted by quantum finite automata are definable in linear temporal logic ...
...temporal logic except for measureonce oneway quantum finite automata ...

1  automata  6 
Excerpts:
...system specifications the relationship between theory of automata and logic had a great influence in ...
...investigation of the relationship between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is a natural ...
...we present a construction of quantum finite automata on finite words from lineartime temporal logic ...
...formulas further the relation between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is explored in ...
...class of languages accepted by quantum finite automata are definable in linear temporal logic except ...
...logic except for measureonce oneway quantum finite automata ...

2  logic  6 
Excerpts:
... linear temporal logic is a widely used method for verification ...
...the relationship between theory of automata and logic had a great influence in the computer ...
...between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is a natural goal in this paper ...
...automata on finite words from lineartime temporal logic formulas further the relation between quantum finite ...
...between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is explored in terms of language recognition ...
...finite automata are definable in linear temporal logic except for measureonce oneway quantum finite automata ...

3  temporal  5 
Excerpts:
... linear temporal logic is a widely used method for ...
...relationship between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is a natural goal in this ...
...finite automata on finite words from lineartime temporal logic formulas further the relation between quantum ...
...relation between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is explored in terms of language ...
...quantum finite automata are definable in linear temporal logic except for measureonce oneway quantum finite ...

4  quantum  5 
Excerpts:
...computer science investigation of the relationship between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is ...
...this paper we present a construction of quantum finite automata on finite words from lineartime ...
...temporal logic formulas further the relation between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is ...
...that the class of languages accepted by quantum finite automata are definable in linear temporal ...
...linear temporal logic except for measureonce oneway quantum finite automata ...

5  linear  4 
Excerpts:
... linear temporal logic is a widely used method ...
...the relationship between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is a natural goal in ...
...the relation between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is explored in terms of ...
...by quantum finite automata are definable in linear temporal logic except for measureonce oneway quantum ...

6  relationship  2 
Excerpts:
...checking and expressing the system specifications the relationship between theory of automata and logic had ...
...in the computer science investigation of the relationship between quantum finite automata and linear temporal ...

7  verification  1 
Excerpts:
...logic is a widely used method for verification of model checking and expressing the system ...

8  recognition  1 
Excerpts:
...logic is explored in terms of language recognition and acceptance probability we have shown that ...

9  formulas  1 
Excerpts:
...on finite words from lineartime temporal logic formulas further the relation between quantum finite automata ...

Residual Contraction
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190913
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose and axiomatically characterize residual contractions, a new kind of contraction operators for belief bases. We establish that the class of partial meet contractions is a strict subclass of the class of residual contractions. We identify an extra condition that may be added to the definition of residual contractions, which is such that the class of residual contractions that satisfy it coincides with the class of partial meet contractions. We investigate the interrelations in the sense of (strict) inclusion among the class of residual contractions and other classes of well known contraction operators for belief bases. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  contractions  7 
Excerpts:
...paper we propose and axiomatically characterize residual contractions a new kind of contraction operators for ...
...establish that the class of partial meet contractions is a strict subclass of the class ...
...strict subclass of the class of residual contractions we identify an extra condition that may ...
...be added to the definition of residual contractions which is such that the class of ...
...is such that the class of residual contractions that satisfy it coincides with the class ...
...coincides with the class of partial meet contractions we investigate the interrelations in the sense ...
...strict inclusion among the class of residual contractions and other classes of well known contraction ...

1  residual  5 
Excerpts:
...this paper we propose and axiomatically characterize residual contractions a new kind of contraction operators ...
...a strict subclass of the class of residual contractions we identify an extra condition that ...
...may be added to the definition of residual contractions which is such that the class ...
...which is such that the class of residual contractions that satisfy it coincides with the ...
...of strict inclusion among the class of residual contractions and other classes of well known ...

2  bases  2 
Excerpts:
...new kind of contraction operators for belief bases we establish that the class of partial ...
...of well known contraction operators for belief bases ...

3  meet  2 
Excerpts:
...we establish that the class of partial meet contractions is a strict subclass of the ...
...it coincides with the class of partial meet contractions we investigate the interrelations in the ...

4  contraction  2 
Excerpts:
...characterize residual contractions a new kind of contraction operators for belief bases we establish that ...
...contractions and other classes of well known contraction operators for belief bases ...

5  operators  2 
Excerpts:
...residual contractions a new kind of contraction operators for belief bases we establish that the ...
...and other classes of well known contraction operators for belief bases ...

6  belief  2 
Excerpts:
...a new kind of contraction operators for belief bases we establish that the class of ...
...classes of well known contraction operators for belief bases ...

7  strict  2 
Excerpts:
...class of partial meet contractions is a strict subclass of the class of residual contractions ...
...investigate the interrelations in the sense of strict inclusion among the class of residual contractions ...

8  partial  2 
Excerpts:
...bases we establish that the class of partial meet contractions is a strict subclass of ...
...satisfy it coincides with the class of partial meet contractions we investigate the interrelations in ...

9  investigate  1 
Excerpts:
...the class of partial meet contractions we investigate the interrelations in the sense of strict ...

Truth Diagrams Versus Extant Notations for Propositional Logic
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190912
Abstract:
Truth diagrams (TDs) are introduced as a novel graphical representation for propositional logic (PL). To demonstrate their epistemic efficacy a set of 28 concepts are proposed that any comprehensive representation for PL should encompass. TDs address all the criteria whereas seven other existing representations for PL only provide partial coverage. These existing representations are: the linear formula notation, truth tables, a PL specific interpretation of Venn Diagrams, Frege's conceptual notation, diagrams from Wittgenstein's Tractatus, Pierce's alpha graphs and Gardner's shuttle diagrams. The comparison of the representations succeeds in distinguishing ideas that are fundamental to PL from features of common PL representations that are somewhat arbitrary. Word Count:
Rank  Word  Count 
0  pl  6 
Excerpts:
...a novel graphical representation for propositional logic pl to demonstrate their epistemic efficacy a set ...
...are proposed that any comprehensive representation for pl should encompass tds address all the criteria ...
...criteria whereas seven other existing representations for pl only provide partial coverage these existing representations ...
...the linear formula notation truth tables a pl specific interpretation of venn diagrams freges conceptual ...
...in distinguishing ideas that are fundamental to pl from features of common pl representations that ...
...fundamental to pl from features of common pl representations that are somewhat arbitrary ...

1  diagrams  4 
Excerpts:
... truth diagrams tds are introduced as a novel graphical ...
...tables a pl specific interpretation of venn diagrams freges conceptual notation diagrams from wittgensteins tractatus ...
...interpretation of venn diagrams freges conceptual notation diagrams from wittgensteins tractatus pierces alpha graphs and ...
...tractatus pierces alpha graphs and gardners shuttle diagrams the comparison of the representations succeeds in ...

2  representations  4 
Excerpts:
...all the criteria whereas seven other existing representations for pl only provide partial coverage these ...
...pl only provide partial coverage these existing representations are the linear formula notation truth tables ...
...gardners shuttle diagrams the comparison of the representations succeeds in distinguishing ideas that are fundamental ...
...to pl from features of common pl representations that are somewhat arbitrary ...

3  truth  2 
Excerpts:
... truth diagrams tds are introduced as a novel ...
...existing representations are the linear formula notation truth tables a pl specific interpretation of venn ...

4  tds  2 
Excerpts:
... truth diagrams tds are introduced as a novel graphical representation ...
...any comprehensive representation for pl should encompass tds address all the criteria whereas seven other ...

5  existing  2 
Excerpts:
...address all the criteria whereas seven other existing representations for pl only provide partial coverage ...
...for pl only provide partial coverage these existing representations are the linear formula notation truth ...

6  representation  2 
Excerpts:
...tds are introduced as a novel graphical representation for propositional logic pl to demonstrate their ...
...28 concepts are proposed that any comprehensive representation for pl should encompass tds address all ...

7  notation  2 
Excerpts:
...these existing representations are the linear formula notation truth tables a pl specific interpretation of ...
...specific interpretation of venn diagrams freges conceptual notation diagrams from wittgensteins tractatus pierces alpha graphs ...

8  tractatus  1 
Excerpts:
...diagrams freges conceptual notation diagrams from wittgensteins tractatus pierces alpha graphs and gardners shuttle diagrams ...

9  tables  1 
Excerpts:
...representations are the linear formula notation truth tables a pl specific interpretation of venn diagrams ...

Formal Semantics and Applied Mathematics: An Inferential Account
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190905
Abstract:
In this paper, I utilise the growing literature on scientific modelling to investigate the nature of formal semantics from the perspective of the philosophy of science. Specifically, I incorporate the inferential framework proposed by Bueno and Colyvan (Nous 45(2): 345“374, 2011) in the philosophy of applied mathematics to offer an account of how formal semantics explains and models its data. This view produces a picture of formal semantic models as involving an embedded process of inference and representation applying indirectly to linguistic phenomena. The final aim of the paper is directed at proposing a novel account of the syntax“semantics interface while shedding light on empty categories, semantically null forms, underspecified content and compositionality as a whole. Word Count:
Confused Terms in Ordinary Language
 Author: Error: Author not contained in standard '<author>' tag in feed
 Publication date: 20190904
Abstract:
Confused terms appear to signify more than one entity. Carnap (Meaning and necessity, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1956) maintained that any putative name that is associated with more than one object in a relevant universe of discourse fails to be a genuine name. Although many philosophers have agreed with Carnap, they have not always agreed among themselves about the truthvalues of atomic sentences containing such terms. Some hold that such atomic sentences are always false, and others claim they are always truthvalueless. Field (J Philos 70:462“481, 1973) maintained that confused terms can still refer, albeit partially, and offered a supervaluational account of their semantic properties on which some atomic sentences with confused terms can be true. After outlining many of the most important theoretical considerations for and against various semantic theories for such terms, we report the results of a study designed to investigate which of these accounts best accords with the truthvalue judgments of ordinary language users about sentences containing these terms. We found that naÃ¯ve participants view confused names as capable of successfully referring to one or more objects. Thus, semantic theories that judge them to involve total reference failure do not comport well with patterns of ordinary usage. Word Count:
